Anthropology Notes 2 9/30/2013 6:59:00 AM
ARCHAEOLOGY: Searching for understanding in the Archaeological record
Archaeological record DOES NOT lie.
In order to interpret what we find, we need to know about a wide
range of aspects of a given culture.
An Archaeological site is past evidence of humans and human
o Archaeological survey: attempt identify them to find, date,
and explain types of human behavior.
o Humans are messy: littering, leaving things behind, etc.
o Artifact: item made, modified, or used by humans.
o There are many types of archaeological site in the world
o We create a database for the known sites
Cultural development closely related to technology
o Present Time: informational age
o Industrial Age: Use of machines
o Iron Age: prerequisite of the industrial age
o Bronze Age: copper and tin
o Neolithic Age: new stone age
o Mesolithic Age: middle stone age
o Paleolithic Age (longest): earliest hominid human stone tools
Upper, Middle, Lower: crudest stone tools in lower.
o Identified bt numerous factors like tools, settlements,
economy, levels of socio-political organization, etc.
AUSTRALOPITHECUS (Afarensis, Africanus, Robustus) and on:
Homo Habilis: Oldowan tools
o Made the first tools, a rock that is flaked into a sharp point
o First found in Olduvai Gorge
Homo Erectus: Acheulian tools
o First hominid to leave Africa
o From Africa, Europe, Asia
o Lived for about .5M-1M years
o Tools were hand axes
o First hominid with fire. Also, they built huts from animal
bones and animal skin.
Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis: Mousterian Tools
o Tools first found in France o More advanced that previous tools
o Used for cutting and drilling
Homo Sapiens Sapiens:
o Many tools, cave art, etc.
Cave art could have been educational or religious
o Most of their tools are blade tools (twice as long as it is wide