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Anthropology Notes 2.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 1000
Professor
Cottier
Semester
Fall

Description
Anthropology Notes 2 9/30/2013 5:59:00 AM ARCHAEOLOGY: Searchg for understanding in the Archaeological record  Archaeological record DOES NOT lie.  In order to interpret what we find, we need to know about a wide range of aspects of a given culture.  An Archaeological site is past evidence of humans and human activities o Archaeological survey: attempt identify them to find, date, and explain types of human behavior. o Humans are messy: littering, leaving things behind, etc. o Artifact: item made, modified, or used by humans. o There are many types of archaeological site in the world o We create a database for the known sites o Provide us information about the technology of the environment. o Most artifacts are made out of stone. o Oldowon is the oldest tools made by homo habilis in the upper Paleolithic period. o Homo erectus made acheulian tools o Homo sapien made musterian tools o Homo sapien spaien made many different tools, bone and ivory  Cultural development closely related to technology o Present Time: informational age o Industrial Age: Use of machines o Iron Age: prerequisite of the industrial age o Bronze Age: copper and tin o Neolithic Age: new stone age o Mesolithic Age: middle stone age o Paleolithic Age (longest): earliest hominid human stone tools  Upper, Middle, Lower: crudest stone tools in lower. o Identified bt numerous factors like tools, settlements, economy, levels of socio-political organization, etc. AUSTRALOPITHECUS (Afarensis, Africanus, Robustus) and on:  Homo Habilis: Oldowan tools o Made the first tools, a rock that is flaked into a sharp point o First found in Olduvai Gorge  Homo Erectus: Acheulian tools o First hominid to leave Africa o From Africa, Europe, Asia o Lived for about .5M-1M years o Tools were hand axes o First hominid with fire. Also, they built huts from animal bones and animal skin.  Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis: Mousterian Tools o Tools first found in France o More advanced that previous tools o Used for cutting and drilling  Homo Sapiens Sapiens: o Many tools, cave art, etc.  Cave art could have been educational or religious o Most of their tools are blade tools (twice as long as it is wide) Use of Dating Methods to Determine Age:  Absolute Dating o Carbon-14: most widely used, discovered in 1940  Amount of radioactive Carbon shoes when the item was last exposed to the environment  Has a half-life of +- 5,730 years  Used in Archaeology and Geology  Only can be used to date something that was once alive. o Archaeomagentic: based on changes of the Earth’s magnetic field  Most accurate kind of dating o Potassium Argon (KAr):  Radioactive decay leaving non-radioactive Argon  Used on rocks  Used to date non-living items  Used for the paleontological record o Dendro-chronology: dating of trees  Relative (comparing A and B) o Stratigraphy (Steno’s law)  Law of super-positioning: the lower layers are the oldest. o Seriation: certain artifact styles change over time (develop popularity then decline)  Ex. Tombstones, transportation, fashion, technology  Do things disappear? No, they only change Levels of Socio-political organization:  Band—tribe—chiefdom—state o 90% of human existence in Band stage  The United States and the Roman World are considered a “super state”  Each level has different powers/privileges depending on the civilization itself  Human societies start off simple and become complex over time  Government provides organization and protection and allows for rights Human developments closely related to technological developments:  Use of natural resources o Ability to have food and water security  Majority of human existence is organized in the band level o People who were hunter and gatherers (Nomads)  Hunters were normally males because they are “more expendable”  The women normally gardened and raide the children.  Artifacts tend to be consistent in style o Mostly made by the women of the community o Cannot be dated if it has been moved from its original position  Tools were generally limited to flaked stone items (minimal/simplistic) o Types of tools:  Single edge item: cuts in one direction, like a razor  Double edge item: cuts in two directions, like a knife/hatchet o Levalloisian tool complex: tools made according to predetermined and standard sizes.  Working of stone to uniface or biface edge  Debitage, or waste created in stone tool manufacturing  90% of human existence is hunters and gatherers o This lead to:  Division of labor  Adaptation to cold climates characterized by dependence on animals for food MESOLITHIC: between Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras.  Tools and environment change NEOLITHIC: New stone age  Increase in plant (most important) and animal domestication  Majority of plants are still utilized today  Changes in tool types: o Use of peck and ground stone o Axes-grooved/ungrooved  Greater regionalism: o People settle in villages o They make pottery (PRIMARY INVENTION) to heat water and do other tasks.  Bone and ivory used in Paleolithic and Neolithic eras. o Trade: Not only trading items, but MOST IMPORTANTLY was the trade of information.  Those that barter have no corporate plan, no authority over you.  Dash: the little extra they give you to try to gain trust when buying rice or salt, etc in Africa. o INVENTION: something new o INNOVACION: a revamping of something already made Rise of Agricultural groups:  First hunting and gathering, then horticultural (use of hoe and dibble), then agricultural (plow)  Diets of early agricultural groups are often inferior (not as well rounded) to that of hunters and gatherers. o Agricultural people live in close proximity and are more prone to getting diseases. o Humans tend to pollute their own water supply.  Slow agricultural revolution. o Plants domesticated: wheat, rice, barley, etc. in Old World. Corn, tobacco, tomatoes, beans, etc. in New World.  Largely in Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, etc.  Evidence of items “in situ” (in place) reveal organization of labor and the manufacture of items  Development of bronze and other metal ages o Develops out of the Neolithic era. o Rise of civilization more associate with bronze age.  Slower process based on food surplus.  Creation of cities and administration control. (someone has to be in charge)  Egalitarian vs. H
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