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BIOL 1020 9

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BIOL 1020
Anne- Marie Singh

BIOL 1020CHAPTER 9 LECTURE NOTES Chapter 9 Cellular RespirationHarvesting Chemical EnergyIThree terms describe the ways in which cells generate ATPaaerobic respirationa generally efficient process that requires O2 most but not all organisms can use a form of this process at least some of the time also called cellular respiration How is this different from breathing and how is it related to breathing banaerobic respirationprocesses similar to aerobic respiration but that do not use O2 used mainly by bacteria that live in anaerobic O2deficient environments cfermentationgenerally inefficient processes used mainly when other pathways cannot be used or when ATP is needed quickly fermentation processes do not use O2 IIAerobic respiration a redox processaaerobic respiration the most efficient form of cellular respiration is used by most organisms bnutrients typically glucose are catabolized to water and carbon dioxide and energy is stored in ATP C6H12O66 O2 6 H2O6 CO212 H2Oenergy stored in 3638 ATP moleculesithis is a redox processglucose is oxidized to carbon dioxide and oxygen is reduced to wateriiabove equation is overall aerobic respiration is actually is series of reactionswater is shown on both sides iiiabove because it is consumed in some reactions and generated in others ivthe overall process is the same as what you would get from burning glucose but the energy would all be lost as heatcaerobic respiration is a complex series of enzymecatalyzed reactions that can be grouped into four types of reactionsisubstratelevel phosphorylationcoupled reactions that directly phosphorylate ADP or GDP iidehydrogenation reactionsredox reactions that transfer hydrogen to NAD or FAD iiidecarboxylation reactionscarboxyl groups are removed CO2 is released ivpreparation reactionsmolecules are rearranged to prepare for other reactions vof the above only substratelevel phosphorylation and dehydrogenation provide energy for cells IIIAerobic respiration is conventionally divided into four stagesaGlycolysisioccurs in the cytosol both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes iioverall glucose is converted to 2 pyruvate molecules a 3carbon molecule iiireleased energy is stored in a net yield of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
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