Class Notes (839,246)
United States (325,890)
Biology (245)
BIOL 3200 (54)
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7 Pages

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BIOL 3200

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ALCOHOL:NOT A NUTRIENT • Alcohol is not a nutrient, has no required function in the body; but provides 7  kcals/g • Phytochemicals o Also known as bioactive componenets o Chemicals that are found in plants that may provide significant health  benefits (reduced risk of cancer, cardiovascular risk…)  Examples: lycopene, lutein, anthocyanins, resveratrol, EGCG,  allium, cucumin MAGIC NUMBERS • 494 o carbs­fats­proteins o SURE QUESTION ON EVERY EXAM • WHAT IS A CALORIE o Measurement of energy o The amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 g of water by 1 degree  Celsius o 1000 calories=1kcal=1 food Calorie • diet reccomendations o carbs:45­65% o fat: 20­35% o proteins: 10­35% • why am I so hungry o hunger  physical biological drive to eat o appetite  psychological drive to eat o satiety (temporary halt of appetite)  regulated by the hypothalamus  feeding center  satiety center  factors regulating satiety: • meal size and composition (bulky meals promote satiety) • macronutrients in the blood • hormones • HORMONES AFFECT SATIETY o Hormones that increase hunger:  Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, and endorphins o Hormones that cause satiety  Leptin, serotonin, and cholecystokinin (cck) • Healthy people 2020 o Goals  Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease,  disability, and premature death o Nutrition objectives  Consume a variety of nutrient­dense foods within and across food  groups especially whole grains, fruits, veggies, low­fat or fat­free  milk or milk products, and lean meats, and other protein sources  Limit intake of solid fats, cholesterol, added sugars, sodium, and  alcohol  Limit intake of calories to meet needs for calories. • On campus o Freshman fifteen  o Alcohol and binge drinking o Eating disorders o Vegetarian lifestyle o Student athletes  Healthy rate of weight loss is one to two pounds per week  One pound of weight loss requires a deficit of 3500 calories  • Cut food intake or increase physical activity to achieve a  deficit of 500 kcals a day • • Nutrient dense o Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with amount of calories it  provides   Nutrient dense if large amount of nutrients for a small amount of  calories • Energy density • Stages of nutritional health o Desirable nutritional health  Intake meets bodys needs  Body has small surplus (in times of increased need)  Obtained by eating a variety of foods o Undernutrition  Intake is below body’s needs  Surpluses are depleted  Health declines  Metabolic processes slow or stop  Subclinical deficiency  Clinical symptoms o Overnutrition   Intake exceeds body’s needs   Short term • Few symptoms  Long term • Serious conditions • Obesity  • How to measure nutritional state? ABCDE o Anthropometric assessment: height, weight, waist circumference, skinfold  thickness o Biochemical assessment: blood and urine assays, enzyme activities,  glucose, cholesterol, etc. o Clinical assessment: appearance of skin, eyes, tongue, sense of touch,  ability to walk o Dietary assessment: usual intake or record of foods consumed o esability of person to purchase food, transport, and cook foods needed to  maintain health.  • Limitations of nutritional assessment o Delayed symptoms and signs  Heart attack  Osteoporosis • Recommendations for healthy eating • My plate o Former meat and beans group ▯ protein group o Former mil group ▯ dairy group o Messages  Balancing calories • Enjoy your food, but eat less • Avoid oversized portions  Foods to increase  • Eat more nutrient dense foods • Make half your plate fruits and veggies • Make at least half your grains whole grains • Switch to fat free of low fat milk  Foods to reduce  • Limit foods high in sodium, added sugars, and refined  grains • Dietary reference intake (DRI) o Developed by the institute of medicine of the national academies o Serves as a guide for good nutrition o Provide scientific basis for the development of food guidelines o Recommended intake levels for vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients • RDA (recommended dietary allowances)  o Nutrient intake amount sufficient to meet needs of 97­98% of individuals in a  specific life stage o Are age and gender specific • AI (adequate intake) o Nutrient intake amount for any nutrient for which insufficient research is  available to establish an RDA • EER (estimated energy requirement) o Estimated energy (kcal) intake to match energy use of an average person • UL (tolerable upper level intake) o Max daily intake level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health 
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