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chem1030 chapter 7 notes: Periodic Properties of the Elements

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CHEM 1030
Marla Spergel

Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the ElementsPeriodic Trends o Rationalize observed trends inSizes of atoms and ionsIonization energyElectron affinityDevelopment of Periodic Table o Elements in the same group generally have similar chemical properties physical properties are not necessarily similar o Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be groupedEffective Nuclear Charge o In a manyelectron atom electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons o The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors o The effective nuclear charge Z is found this way eff ZZS eff where Z is the atomic number and S is a screening constant usually close to the number of inner electronsSizes of Atoms o The bonding atomic radius is defined as onehalf of the distance between covalently bonded nuclei o Bonding atomic radius tends to decrease from left to right across a row due to increasing Z eff increase from top to bottom of a column due to increasing value of nSizes of Ions o Ionic size depends uponThe nuclear chargeThe number of electronsThe orbitals in which electrons reside o Cations are smaller than their parent atomsThe outermost electron is removed and repulsions between electrons are reduced o Anions are larger than their parent atomsElectrons are added and repulsions between electrons are increased o Ions increase in size as you go down a columnThis is due to increasing value of n o In an isoelectronic series ions have the same number of electronsIonic size decreases with an increasing nuclear chargeIonization Energy o The ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion o The first ionization energy is that energy required to remove first electron o The second ionization energy is that energy required to remove second electron etc
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