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chem1030 chapter 11 notes: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids

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Auburn University
CHEM 1030
Marla Spergel

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces Liquids and SolidsThe States of Matter o The state a substance is in at a particular temperature and pressure depends on two antagonistic entitiesthe kinetic energy of the particlesthe strength of the attractions between the particlesIntermolecular Forces o The attractions between molecules are not nearly as strong as the intramolecular attractions that hold compounds together o They are however strong enough to control physical properties such as boiling and melting points vapor pressures and viscosities o These intermolecular forces as a group are referred to as van der Waals forcesDipoledipole interactionsHydrogen bondingLondon dispersion forcesIonDipole Interactions a fourth type of force are important in solutions of ions o The strength of these forces are what make it possible for ionic substances to dissolve in polar solventsDipoleDipole Interactions o Molecules that have permanent dipoles are attracted to each other o The positive end of one is attracted to the negative end of the other and viceversa o These forces are only important when the molecules are close to each other o The more polar the molecule the higher is its boiling pointLon
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