HIST 1020: World History II
The Eighteenth-century Political Order
I. Growth of Centralized Rule
a. More focus on power at home- one government to extend
outwards. More officers obeying central gov. starting to look like
modern nation state. Start having borders to territories.
A. Asian Monarchies- inherited rule (RUSSIA AND CHINA)
1. Qing (pure) China- height of political, territorial, military,
and economic state in 18 cent. In power 150 years.
a. Manchus- nomadic minority ethnic group( own
language, customs, make up 2% of population) in
power take over power for chinese empire in early
17 cent. And expand.
i. Emporer and inner council
1. Emp always Manchu, most officials
b. Focused on interior threats. Not concerned with
Europe, missionaries, or outside world. Did not
want Japanese to leae the islands. Ban guns But
still something to be reckoned with.
i. Require all males to have queue- saying if
you keep your head you lose your head,
keep your hair, you lose your head.
2. Tokugawa Japan hereditary government. Shogun- head
of government (traditionally head military officer (best
until 17 cent)) tokugawa makes shogun hereditary.
a. Very isolated government. Few people see
shogun,(influence from mystery) live in isolated palaces. Edo palace (edo= largest city in the
world. Becomes Tokyo)
b. Warlords throughout regions,
i. control warlords by system of making
warlords spend every other year in edo.
ii. Tokugawa insisted all warlords family be
kept in edo at all times.
B. European Absolutism- one person has absolute power. Essence
of entire country and people
1. Individual Rule
a. Ultimate authority (but may delegate jobs to
b. Less conflict if everyone listens to one person
(comes about after reformation and religious wars)
i. Thomas hobbes the leviathan (1651)
2. Connections to Religion
a. Power because god gave it to him/her- divine
i. No one argues because they are
mouthpiece of god
b. Close connections to church, most commonly
catholic, but protestant in some countries
i. Louis- crowned by providence, defended by
angels, trampling his enemies (Charles
c. Forces people to follow same church. (catholic
church struggling to maintain power)
3. Centralized Bureaucracy (encouragement to support)
administrations a. Bureaucracy- modern. Tell people that if they
support ruler, they get privileges (offices,
monopolies on trade, land, and titles)
i. Being part of nobility means certain
privileges (no taxes, say in gov, office in
central gov, ability to go hunting where you
b. Supporters are workforce that can enforce laws,
i. Rulers get more money, because they get
more taxes effectively.money= create
4. Standing Armies
II. Paying for Centralized Rule (absolutism)
a. government is at heart. Controls significant portion
b. also based on monopolies (run by state)
c. more resources= more money=more power
i. look abroad for resources
B. Colonial Possessions relied on for resources/money
1. European Trading Companies successful in southeast
asia and india
a. People come and go freely/more often
2. The Americas home countries have people go
somewhere to colonize and gather resources. Massacre
indigenous population. Home countries are in charge,
colonies are under power of king. Make money for home
through their own labor and forced labor.
a. British colonies have a bit more representation
( more local governments) b. Come and stay, organize colonies, government,
town halls, democracy
c. South America maintains Spanish/Portuguese
order. Not democratic.
3. Africa and the Slave Trade forced labor
a. Sugar coffee indigo rice and cotton labor.
b. In Europe and Africa slaves could become part of
the family or buy their freedom. Not in the
c. 1750-1800 4 million (of 12 million) slaves brought
I. Edo, Japan high city- religious temples, etc. low city- more densely
populated. Merchants an townspeople. Azakusa- major temple.
A. Neo-Confucian social hierarchy based on discipline and loyalty.
Based on being a morally right person. Divides in to classes.
“meritocracy”- in you are good and work and such you can work
your way up
a. Samurai elite warriors- most important (protection)
b. Farmers provide life for society by growing the food
c. Artisans provide goods, make clothes tools, weapons.
d. Merchants seen as dirty- making profits from others
work. Money not greatest value
e. Everyone else grave diggers and the worse- actors.
Sometimes women. Lazy, homeless, insane people.
B. Little to no interactions except in public baths and pleasure
center- (if you can afford it, you’re welcome)
II. Lima, Peru 50k people. A little more movement in social hierarchy than
in edo. Many Europeans. (Mountainous/hilly landscape) animals
wandering streets. Not much public health/ sanitation workers. No one
walks, if they can help it. Mostly Spanish people. Catholic. A. Colonial Order
1. Europeans Spaniards. Catholics trying to make everyone
else catholic. Maintain noble title from Spain. Also
collection of non-noble Spaniards that come to make it
big in Americas without title
a. Encomienda system settlers get power/ land/
money through encomienda system (granted by
government) anyone on land becomes slave to
land owner. Owner dies, slaves free. Settlers, own
majority of the land and plantations.
2. Africans start to come to new world to take place of dying
Indians in form of labor. Slaves actually allowed to go
out, work, and have possessions. Valuable because
they’re expensive and less susceptible to diseases that
3. Indians basically count for nothing. Laborers and farmers
for countryside. Europeans don’t want them around
unless they come from royal lineage.
III. Paris, France pop. 600,000. Rapidly expanding.
A. Estate system correspond with classes
1. First Estate (Aristocracy)
a. 5-10% of entire population
b. completely in charge
d. no taxes, hunt wherever, positions in government.
Control over monopolies
2. Second Estate (Clergy) 5-7%
a. Roman catholic church (official religion)
b. Order of ranks in clergy come from aristocracy.
Need education. Education requires money
c. No taxes, special relationship with state d. Not including monks and nuns. (they can come
from any class, but can still skip taxes)
3. Third Estate (Everyone Else)
a. Famers beholden to landowners, peasants.
b. New emerging proffessions in third estate in 18 th
century. More merchants, trades people, and
artisans. People gathering wealth in ways other
HIST 1020: World History II
Life in the French Caribbean
BRIEF Lecture Outline
• The Map
• The Social Structure
• Land/plantation owners- French
• Poor French
• “Mullatos” French call people of color.
• The Economic Structure- slaves deal with sugar to sell.
• The Political Structure- code noir
HIST 1020: World History II
I. The fundamental beliefs of the Enlightenment- primarily in great Britain and
france (western Europe) 18 century A. God as a watchmaker role of god changes. God and fate not
such a large force. God created everything including laws (gravity) then let it go.
Up to people to figure out what to do with it.
B. the triumph of reason scientific method. We have access to
knowledge. Separates from beasts. Value of education. Scientific method also
used for philosophy to understand society, government, history. Should question
and observe things and decide what is best based of observations.
C. The betterment of mankind and society separated from beasts
because of the ability to improve ourselves. Only through education of masses
can society as a whole improve. Museums and libraries, and intellectual
academies and societies. If we don’t ask questions, we are giving ourselves the
fate to remain the same.
D. The government should reflect natural law laws that can be
figured out based on reason. Government should follow natural principles.
Government should reflect that its in charge of wellbeing of people, so people
should have say.
II. Some of the great philosophes in conversation with one another
A. John Locke everyone born the same, tabula rasa. Humans born
free of original sin, with the freedom to make themselves.
However, they are born with three primary natural rights – life,
liberty, and property. Only talking about property-owning men.
Not slaves or women.
B. Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 from Germany. “what is
enlightenment” essay. Dare to know. Enlightenment is the
struggle to understand self and society. Too long imprisoned in
traditions. Push people to ask questions and stop listening to
what they’re told. Be skeptical. Body of knowledge is infinite.
C. Adam Smith 1723-1790 scottsman. The wealth of nations.
Laissez-faire economics. Calls out mercantilism. Economy
should be based on individual liberties. Government should stay out of economic affairs. Competition is essential, because
people will become more efficient.
D. Voltaire 1694-1778 believed the past influenced each individual
and state in unique ways. Wrote on the need for religious
IV. The spread of the Enlightenment
a. Able to spread much more quickly than ever because cities are
becoming larger. People in cities get together and talk.
b. Growth of literature. More people can read, giving them more
access to ideas. More access to ideas from other countries.
Debates had in salons where people would host and invite people
over then have a theme. 32 british colonies in north America, not all
rebelled against crown. These colonies have some of the highest
literacy rates in the world. Reading material from Europe and
corresponding. Very much connected with world.
c. National and political identity
d. Creates new government based on enlightenment ideals.
HIST 1020: World History II
The American Revolution
I. The Seven Years’/French and Indian War 1753-1764 (more than 7
years) international war, not just European continents. (first world war)
a. Treaty of Paris (1763)
i. France loses imperial foothold in north America, transferred
to british. Shift in French foreign policy to regain lost
colonies and territories (why participants in american
ii. Blossoming of enlightenment ideals in America> revolutions
(French, Haitian, American)
II. Unrest in the Colonies
a. Taxation i. Pay off british war debts. So colonists “chip in”
ii. Some unrest begins to show because Britain starts to tax in
1. Colonists not allowed to trespass indian reserve.
Problems because social heirarshy was different
(more mobility) (a lot of middle class) so to rise in
social standing you acquire land.
iii. Sugar act- sugar is important for alcohol. Alcohol important
to society (rum). Lowered price of molasses, to try to crack
down on illegal smuggling.
iv. Stamp act- stamps on every piece of paper. Paper is
important because everything needed to be written down.
v. Quartering act- provide for rations and supplies for soldiers
vi. Townshend duties- shifted power in colonies. Gov. and
Britain taking tax money to pay for officials, therefore now in
back pocket of government.
vii. Tea act- passed to save british east india trading company.
(middlemen and smugglers trying to lower price of tea) act
tries to get rid of middle men to have more competitive
prices. Whenever tea dropped off in colonial port, fee
needed to be paid. Denied to pay fee for cargo on dec. 16 . th
Ship couldn’t leave or drop of tea.
1. Intolerable act- close port, killed jobs
2. Quartering act 2