HIST 1020: World History II
- Small land holders and aristocratic land holders side by side
- Substance agriculture (staples not cash crops to provide food
for selves and family)
- Enclosure wealthy people buying up land and taking hold of
common land through various methods.
- Made agriculture more efficient, but people supported by
land no longer have that. So they move toward cities. Or
- Division of Labor
- Cottage industry.
- Wool is delivered and labor is divided by task.
- Steam Power
- Comes with emergence of coal mining.
- Used to pump water out of coalmines.
- Lowers cost of energy.
- Frees industry from being around water.
- Water frame or spinning jenny makes production more
efficient. More product faster, and fewer people to pay. - Transportation
- Boom in canal building more goods than a wagon, no
additional technology needed, pulled by horse.
- Lowers cost of transportation. Move goods faster.
- Population Growth
- Booming urban populations because fed better, more children,
- People living wherever they can. Not good living spaces
because of lack of money. Cramming people together.
- Smokestacks ruining air quality.
- Air quality can cause death.
- Rise of radical political movements.
- People will rebel against poor living conditions.
- People are very desperate though.
- Ability to buy things that you don’t produce yourself for a
HIST 1020: World History II
Some Political Responses to Revolution
– Europe: Recovering from revolution
• Congress of Vienna, 1815 • All leaders of Europe (aristocrats and monarchs)
come to discuss what will happen to countries of
Europe now that napoleon is gone
• Go back to old borders
• Want to go back to absolute monarchy so
they get their power back. (Absolute power,
state control of economies, emphasis on
monopolies, class system with privileges,
instate national/ state religion)
• Prince Klemens von Metternich
• Head of congress of Vienna. Royal. Chancellor of
Austria. Calls for conservation of the old order.
• Because these people have money, power and
military means, they get what they want.
– Other forms of conservatism
• Arabian Peninsula
• Fairly secular.
• Islamic clerics argue that the people have become
too distant from their religion and religion she be
monitored much more closely.
• Comes from enlightenment and French and American
• Popular sovereignty
– Economics • Support individual participation in the economy.
• Free market economies, capitalism
– What is a ‘nation’?
• Sovereign power
• Based around group of people with common interests,
characteristics, and a government that supports that.
– Nationalism as a political movement
• Support creation of nations with own government.
• Strengthening power of nation.
A Changing Map of Europe
• Liberals and nationalists think change can happen. Ends
up being failure.
• A period of famine (throughout 1840s especially 1848)
• Becomes a time of revolutions.
– “Springtime of the peoples”
• (Liberals and nationalists argue that this is the time for
change.) Called springtime of the people because in the
first few months things look good.
• Riots in Italy
• Riots in France (Feb. and mar) king is toppled and
second French republic declared.
• Word spreads to central Europe riots in Germany.
– Monarchs in Germany give concessions to
– Allow more freedom to press etc. • Rome – republic
• Republics start putting together public works projects
(better transport and infrastructures)
• By summer 1848, monarchs start getting their bearings
and start cracking down (particularly on the poor)
• The liberals and nationalists cant decide on plan of
action (not united front)
• Liberals and nationalists all fairly elite, and small in
– People rising up are poor and don’t feel libs and
nationalists are listening to their needs.
• People in power have power because of money in
military and end up squashing a lot of liberal and
– By end of year, stomp liberal changes made.
• Louisnapoleon Bonaparte becomes president of second
French republic Napoleon III
– Quickly becomes conservative
– Starts squashing meeting and action
– Declares himself emperor, eventually. 18521870
1. Monarchs have money and military
2. Liberals aren’t united
3. Liberals and nationalists don’t have popular support
Result: counterrevolution succeeds.
• National Unifications
• Lesson learned unification is going to be difficult. – Challenges to unification
• Majority of population still peasants that don’t care
about politics because they just want food.
• Liberalists and nationalists realize they have to work
within current political system.
– However it’s hard to convince people of the
natural connections in different territories.
(Different languages, appearances)
– Also, pope against national unification because he
will lose land and power. People won’t be focused
just on him but also a nation.
– Difficulty of figuring out who has to give up power
and who gets to rule. And the worry of stronger
• King Victor Emanuele II
– Piedmont Sardinia
– Most powerful king there^
– Only king with constitutional monarchy.
• Count Camilo Benso di Cavour
– Just Cavour.
– Prime minister with all the power/ideas.
– Sort of liberal, likes what he sees in Great Britain
and US, but is practical. So when he comes to
power, he starts working to unify Italy under King
Victor II through diplomatic negotiations. – All about diplomacy and war. (Fight war with
– Has a number of popular votes in Italy and some
joins with piedmont Sardinia.
• Giuseppe Garibaldi
– Finds Cavour to be slow and boring
– Liberalist and nationalist.
– Starts war and travels from piedmont to Sicily,
conquering armies and gathering support, across
to Naples, advancing toward Rome.
– Cavour comes to meet him and they make a deal,
stopping outside of Rome and unite as much as
possible leaving out Rome for next few years.
– 1861 kingdom of Italy declared
– 1870 Rome joins all of Italy united.
• King William I took over after preceding king found to
be crazy. 18611888
– Came up with fantastic chancellor>>>
• Count Otto von Bismarck architect of modern politics.
18621871chacellor of Prussia. 18711890 chancellor of
• Realistic politics. The government should do
whatever it takes for the best of the nation. • Problem: goes against a lot of liberal
reforms that have been pushed for in the
past few years.
• FrancoPrussian War
– Fought on what becomes border of France and
Germany. Between William I and napoleon III.
– Outcome: the French lose embarrassingly. They’re
– Upshot of it: napoleon III is forced to give his
sword to Bismarck who insists that the German
empire declared in Versailles palace. (Symbol of
French political and cultural dominance.)
Nation and Empire Building in the Nineteenth Century
• Nation building
• Centralize power. Helped by better infrastructure and
– Liberal reform
• Places with most industrialization are the places with the
more liberal reforms.
• Crimean War, 18531856
• When railroads became essential. Industrialization and
growth of armaments decide who win war. • Photography. Allows war to be brought home. Creates
connection between those fighting and those at home.
• First time nursing becomes modern. (Florence
• First war with telegraphs involved. First foreign
correspondence on the battlefield.
• Changes balance of power. Makes it clear that the more
liberal nation states had the power and more traditional
empires are no longer viable.
• Emancipation of serfs. Russia Great Reforms
• Changes the concept of empire. The ideas of liberalism
and nationalism change ide of empire to just territory
with a ruler to a dominion of a home nation so that the
home nation is actually in charge and in theory shares
industry with colonized population and uses colonies for
Socialism and Marxism
– Origins found in industrialization and liberalism.
• Expansion of urbanization
• Growth of lower working class
– Miserable situations long hours, low wages,
– Often separated from families
– Starting to look for new support systems and start
talking to people with similar problems. – Start thinking about how the politics aren’t fair to
them, and thinking of an alternative (economy
based on cooperation instead of competition, and
not every man for himself)
– Economy based on cooperation.
• Utopian socialism
– Workers own the means of production=utopian society
• Everyone is a worker, treated equally, works together,
and everyone owns the means of production.
– Some small groups actually try. Worked on small scale.
• Scientific Socialism (Marxism)
– Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
– From Germanic lands of central Europe.
– Like what utopian socialists have to say, and end
product, but think that they have no way to get to
the end product.
• History as science
– History is just like any field of science.
– Marx embraces enlightenment ideas and argues
that history is a science
– History follows a linear path. (Know where you’re
from and you can know where you’re going)
– Every society has certain points that it has to go
through before it can end
edistribution>communism • History as class warfare
• All of history boils down to class warfare.
Conflict between oppressors and oppressed.
• The only way to break away from the
hierarchy is for the new professional class to
rise up and overthrow the nobility.
• With this, you get expansion of
workers>growth of oppressed that
will rise up and overthrow oppressors.
• Once working class rules, they can
form a small government that can
redistribute economy, property, and
means of production so there is no
class system. Then government/state
can melt away and there can be
socialist utopia (communism) no
allegiance except to the whole. No
need for money or religion or family
connections or national boundaries.
• You cant have communism without
Feudalism > urbanization > industrialization
> redistribution > communism
– Materialism • School of thought that all questions of
history are related to “who owns what”
“who owns the means of production”
• Two classes in industrial society.
• Middle class