World Migration at the Turn of the Century
• Abolition of slavery
• Overseas Migration
• Money going from migrant labor back home.
• Italy: remittances= #2 source of income
– Indentured Labor
• Plantation owners need new source of cheap labor. Go and recruit largely
peasant populations to travel and sign contract to work 57 years.
• Get paid with food and shelter. May or may not get small token
• Health care not important
• Not much support (religiously or socially)
• Less incentive to keep them alive than with slavery.
• Internal Migration
– Significant amount in Africa in labor
• Trying to find labor
• Travel to different ethnic territories
– Also significant amount in united states.
• Sell off of former indian lands to get non native americans out west.
• Railroad network
• Changing Urban Landscape
– Greater class divisions
• Segregation between proletariat and bourgeoisie
• Hastily constructed tenements
• Crowded 810 people in a room • Not much light
• No electricity or running water.
• Rise of middle class
• Professionals and business owners.
• Seen in expansion of department stores.
• Expansion of civil society
• Civilization library, museums, cafes help to expand and
spread new ideas.
• Community that is far from native home connected through ethnic
• Little italys
– Expansion of New Technologies
• Electric lights
• Cable cars and trollies
• Ability to live outside of cities suburbs
• Concern with public health
LeadUp to the Great War
I. Factors leading to the outbreak of war
a. Slavs want to separate from Austrohungarian empire
b. “all slavs” want to gather together and create one large
i. serbs mostly. – greater serbia
c. Great rivalry of austrohanugarian empire and Russia
because Slavic family is in charge of Russia.
B. Alliance systems
1. Triple Entente
a. Great britain
b. France c. Russian empire
2. Triple Alliance
C. Glorification of war
1. Popular view throughout Europe
a. Connects to nationalism ( you want to prove you’re the
b. Social Darwinism war speeds up killing off weak.
i. Strong nations kill opponents, win, come home
heroes, and it will prove that they’re the best
1. All powers think they’re the greatest, so
they think they’re going to win any war
and it will be short and glorious.
D. Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
a. June 28 1914 in Sarajevo
2. Gavrilo Princip
a. Only 19, Serbian nationalist.
b. Blow up bomb, but francis was not harmed (wrong car,
c. Ferdinand gives a speech about how he’s disappointed
and now hates slavs.
d. He is organized to leave a different way, but they forget
to tell drivers.
e. Car has to stop to turn around, so gavrilo comes from
crowd and shoots.
i. Cant get capital punishment because of age.
ii. Dies of disease in prison.
3. Austriahungary has to have someone to blame, so they decide
Serbia must be to blame. a. With help of Germany, Austriahungary sends demands
to Serbia. (get rid of any officials that may be Slavic
nationalist) july 23 1914. Give two days to respond (they
have to meet all demands or war will be declared)
i. Agree to most of the demands except letting
austohungarian military in to investigate.
ii. Austriahungary has to declare war, Russia has
to help Serbia, Germany declares on Russia and
iii. So all powers preparing to engage in war with
all of them thinking they’ll be victor at the end.
The Great War, 19141918
• Expectations of the war
– Schlieffen Plan 6 weeks
• Designed by german head of military (well before outbreak of war)
• Implemented in 1914
• Germany needs to first attack france (through Belgium to north
of france) with very vicious force.
• Hook around and capture English channel
• Capture paris
• Destroy it quickly
• spread back across Germany
• then fight Russia.
• France has plan that Belgium and france can hold them off.
• Realities of the war
• august 1 Germany asks Belgium if they can walk through their country
• Belgium says no
• Germany invades august 2
• Things go wrong with schlieffen plan
• Russia is faster than planned • British faster than anticipated
• By end of august, germans in northern france.
• By early September first battle of the marne
• Germans able to make such progress that they’re within 30 miles
of paris. Looks bad for france.
• New technologies, though
• airplane French see weak flank, and send out troops
using taxis from paris. Outnumber germans and push
them back 40 miles or so.
• Germans don’t want to be outflanked any more, so they
– Trench warfare
• Lines don’t move much
• Battle of the somme (most devastating battle of wwi and one of
the most devastating in recent history.)
• New weapons
• Shovel (most important tool a soldier can have)
• Barbed wire
• Wire cutters
• Mustard gas
• Most valuable weapon machine gun
• Life in the trenches
• Majority of time spent waiting, not fighting.
• Sitting in trenches, playing cards, knitting blankets
• Fighting against rats, mice, lice, fleas, etc.
• Sitting in a hole hold liquid
• Cold=ice • Trench foot feet cant get dry, so they have a lot of bacteria,
which leads to gangrene.
• Venereal disease
– Home front
• Total war.
• People at home aid in war efforts
• Rise of propaganda to keep war popular.
• German invasion of Belgium known as rape of Belgium.
• The US enters the war
• Lusitania sunk by german uboat 1915 (accused of having
• Zimmerman telegram (to mexico that germans will
support mexico in gaining back land from US if mexico
• US provides warm bodies that weren’t exhausted, along with
• The Russian Revolutions
• In February and October
• Preoccupy Russia and make eastern front obsolete.
• March 1918 russia signs treaty with Germany to get them out of
war. Treaty of brestliovsk
• No more eastern front. Germany is stronger on western
front, but so are british, French, and US.
• Flu pandemic
• Spring, shortly after Russia departs.
• Universal and goes throughout 1919.
• Kills between 25100 million people. (WWI killed 10
milion) • Affected everyone, not just elderly and babies.
• Weak immune systems of people on battlefields due to
cold, exhaustion, hunger, etc.
• German ‘victory drive’
• May 1918
• German military decides to push 1 million soldiers in a last
• Send million men over the top after brief (5 hour)
• It is successful they push through enemy lines (40 miles into
• Start to realize that this isn’t really good idea and by summer,
things start to get bad for Germany.
• Exhausted and used to sitting in trenches and not having
to carry supplies. All of their food, medicine, and
supplies aren’t close, so they start to starve
• They get pushed back to original borders of
• Not looking good for Germany.
• Mutinies everywhere.
• German king steps down.
• Successor asks for peace.
• Nov 11, 1918 at 11 a.m.
The Russian Revolutions
A. Political and social makeup of Russia
a. Not industrialized
b. Ruled by one family (tsar)
c. Absolute monarchy
d. Crimean war they didn’t do well
e. Lost to Japanese. f. Napoleon tried to conquer, but failed because its huge and cold
g. Many ethnicities and languages not modern nation state. Ethnically
h. Very agricultural and majority of population is peasant.
i. Serfdom abolished(1861), but still largely tied to land
i. Turn of 20 century starting to industrialize in the west.
B. Movements for reform
Many political reform movements.
1. Liberal constitutionalists
a. Focus on industrialization and individual freedoms
ii. Equality before the law
iii. Constitutional monarchy
2. Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party
i. Socialists. Marxist.
1. Workers should own means of production
and everyone equal in society communism
2. Class warfare=history. Oppressors vs
3. History will always go through a certain
number of steps. It is inevitable.
i. Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
a. Argued that he was a Marxist, bust changed things.
b. Created new ideology Leninist Marxism.
i. Lenin says “why wait?” maybe you can skip
over some steps by hving:
ii. A party= revolutional vanguard.
1. Made up of elites that lead
revolution. Then teach everyone
else the probability.
2. Wants revolution to be more
“groomed” iii. Thinks they should control papers because
no speech is really free.
iv. Does not support small socialist efforts to
change system slowly over time because:
1. There would be division
v. Argues all of this in book which splits
Russian socialist workers party
ii. Bolsheviks, ‘majority’
a. For Leninist maxism
a. For marxism
C. The Revolution of 1905
a. Russojapanese war.
i. Japan wins
ii. People are unhappy and take to streets and start protesting.
b. Bloody Sunday January 9 1905h
i. Thousands of Russians in st Petersburg come out and protest
in front of palace
ii. Royal guard shoots at the protestors and many are killed or
c. Tsar agrees to a Duma representative body
II. The Russian Empire in the Great War
a. By 19161917 16 million Russians conscripted into army (mostly poor and
untrained peasants with poor weapons and no lessons how to use them)
III. The Revolutions of 1917
A. The February Revolution
a. Tsar abdicates because guard sides with peasants and think his
brother will take over.
i. Brother refuses.
1. No monarchy left. Only duma is left.
B. The October (Bolshevik) Revolution
i. Storming of the winter palace(symbol of the old regime) ii. Way less bloody than the February revolution.
iii. Takes another 4 years for Bolsheviks to really claim that they
have control of russia
1. Withdrawal from the war
a. Immestarts on treaty with Germany
b. March 1918 treaty of brestlitosk= withdrawal from war.
i. Gives germanya fourth of russia
2. “Dictatorship of the proletariat”
a. massive civil war for Bolsheviks to gain control after
withdrawal from war
b. lenin’s new government dictatorship of the proletariat
i. working class rules
ii. everyone (including royal family) goes to work.
The Aftermath of World War I
• Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points
• Speech to congress January 8 1918. (ten months before the end of the
– Responds to what he thinks are causes and gives possible
solutions to prevent another world war.
• Problems causing war:
– Arms race
– Colonial claims
– Violation of sovereign states
– Secret alliances
o Wilson thinks nationalism is a major cause of the war.
o Solution: national selfdetermination
If you want your own nation, you should be allowed.
League of Nations
o Discuss problems together (end secret alliances)
Hopefully will stop people from wanting to go to war.
• Treaty of Versailles • January 1821 1919
– New nations
• Turkey instead of ottoman empire.
– League of Nations
• United states never actually joins.
• Set up in Switzerland
– Guilt clause
• States that Germany has to take responsibility for the entire war and will
be held responsible for all damages, death, etc.
• Germany has to get rid of entire military complex. Give up guns, take
apart tanks, sink submarines
• Germany has to pay the cost of the war for everyone (132 billion marx
(~a trillion dollars today)and resources/goods)
• Economic difficulties
– People underemployed and starving.
• Social crises
– People extremely frustrated, populations decimated.
– Soldiers that do come home are maimed. Depressed and injured physically and
• Liberal democracy
• Socialism and communism • Ex military calling for more aggressive state that eliminates weakness
that caused war and terrible post war period
– Germany has major debt, but they don’t have money or resources.
• Print money.
– Value of mark $1 to $1trillion
– socialist and communists encouraging people to strike.
– series of veteran groups decide it is their responsibility to relieve unrest.
– Voluntary soldiers taking care of unrest.
• Go to government and ask to be able to maintain order.
• Roam streets and “keep peace” with violence and aggression
• Occupation of the Rhineland
– France doesn’t want to let Germany a break.
• They need the money
• Germany should have to pay because they’re responsible.
– Germans mining land near French border
• Germans go on strike, france says no and occupies land and force
germans to keep mining.
• Gustav Stresemann
– Germans decide they have one last trick.
• Gustav stresemann chancellor and foreign minister of Germany in
– Gets rid of mark, and makes new ones. To help stop inflation.
(makes 1 trillion marks 1)
– Convinces the miners to go back to work and france that they
will continue payin reparations but at a slower rate.
– Negotiates with US to loan Germany money to pay reparations.
Rise of Italian Fascism
I. Italy in the Postwar A. ‘Mutilated peace’
a. Italy didn’t get all that they wanted.
b. People are unhappy
i. Government said if you fight for us, we’ll give you land, but
they don’t have any
B. Red Years
b. like in Germany, theres extreme amount of protests.
II. Rise of Fascism
A. Benito Mussolini
a. From central Italy.
b. Big socialist.
c. Changes mind to be for war, kicked out of socialist party, drafted into
war, injured comes home