Aftermath of World War II
The creation off “the east” after world war II
• Overview of the postwar situation
– Search for responsibility
• In japan, one man held responsible for Japanese war hideki tojo
• Argues its all his fault and the emporer shouldn’t be
• Tries to kill himself, but misses heart.
• Is executed.
• Italy has no war trials. Only one fascist put to trial and then
• Most of former fascist allowed to carry on with former
• Germany considered prime aggressor.
• Held entirely responsible
• Nuremberg Trials
• Nov 20 1945october 1 1946
• 21 of most prominent Nazis left are tried
• 11 sentenced to death. (one commits suicide before
• don’t convict majority of Nazis or germans.
• Even during the 1950s, over 50 % of officials in power were in
power during nazi reign.
– Search for stability
• Islands of japan largely occupied by US
• Korea (colong of japan) divided between US and Soviet union
• Sept 2 1945 japanese formally surrender.
• Japan one of the US’s most successful democratization projects.
• Demilitarized and the US does a lot to feed the population and
house them • By late 1940s, early 1950s, Japanese eonomy back up
• Potsdam conference july 16 august 2 1945
• Decide because they cant agree on post war plan, they will
divide Germany into 4 occupationdomes.
• North west great britain
• Northeast(with berlin) soviet union
• Southwest france
• Southeast US
• Berlin is also divided into 4
• New superpowers emerge
– New powers in global politics and economics
• Soviet union
• United states
– Say the will work side by side, but they cant, ultimately
• World divided:
• Western ideals
• United states ideals
• Free market
• Eastern ideals
• Soviet ideals
• Communism for Marxist idealogy
• Cold war
• No actual fighting
• The lure of “communism” spreads
• “why should a farmer be worth less than someone else?”
• Chinese communist party
• Mao Zedong • Most connected with communist party and conflict with
• Becomes one of original communist party members in
• 19371945 grows from a few hundred to
millions of members.
• To help create support network for communism, he
focuses on the peasants.
• Says peasants(countryside) are essential in any
revolution that takes place in China.
• 1949, mao and followers overthrow nationalist
• Early chinese communist society
• Collectivization and industrialization in small rural areas.
• Killed between 4075 million people
Containment: the cold war in the west
• The iron curtain
o Winston Churchill speech 1946
• Domino theory/Truman doctrine
o Harry truman(19451953)
o America still strong after war. Other look to them
If America helps them out, they wont become communist.
Americans will do whatever it takes to prevent spread of communism
• It works.
• Marshall plan
o George marshall US secretary of state 194749
Give money to French (billions)
Offer money to soviets who refuse
• Creation of the west german state o British, French and americans combine their territories.
Soviets are angry and block all traffic from west
Begin dropping food and supplies daily by plane.
• Soviets eventually back down
o 1949 soviets develop nuclear weapon
• Korean war
o Soviets are moving in to liberate, us sees this, and moves into the south.
Communist government in the north
• Kim il sung supreme leader of north korea (19481994)
Us controls south
• Singman rhee president of south korea(1948 60)
o Both leaders are nationalist.
o Proxy war fight by getting other countries to fight.
Koreans fight, not soviets and US
o Ceasefire, 1953 war never technically ended.
2.5 million people die.
• berlin wall
o 1949 NATO
• “if east attacks, we’ll defend you”
o 19531964 nikita Khrushchev comes into power as head of USSR after stalin
Believes missiles are best defense.
o Berlin still divided.
o People in east Germany know how good the west have it, and want to move
1960 khrushchev demands that berlin becomes capital east Germany.
Threatens with bomb.
o East germans start building wall around berlin. 1961 June 1963 Kennedy goes to berlin “ich bin ein Berliner”
• Berliner jelly donut.
o Nov. 1963 goes to dallas assassinated
Containment in the US
o Joseph mccarthy US senator
Communism is communicable disease of the mind.
List of communist names. Turns into witch hunt.
Interstate highway act
• If theres a nuclear bomb, they need to move troops and supplies
People don’t need to live in the cities they need to get away from attack
• American consumerism
Women stay at home
Home economics classes.
1959 the kitchen debate.
Laws keeping blacks out of suburbs.
• Black oppresion
o Economic growth
o Civil rights movement
1960s becomes more organized.
o Black power
More aggressive stance.
o Worldwide protests (usa, france, Mexico) Student protests.
The ‘cold’ war expands to the ‘third world’
• Principles of the cold war
o A world divided by ideology
• Vietnam▯laos▯Cambodia ▯ Thailand… etc
o “mutually assured destruction”
• 1949 USSR develops atomic bomb.
• If one side were to launch a bomb, the other side would launch a
bomb right back. So both sides will be involved in nucle