PHYS 215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Substantia Nigra, Central Nervous System, Neuromuscular Junction

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1. Central Nervous System
Neurotransmitters
oThree different types
Amino acids – fast acting
Aspartate
Glutamate
Glycine
GABA
Amines – fast acting
Ach
Dopamine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
Histamine
Peptides – slow acting
Substance P
Endorphin
Ion channels or second messengers
oFast synapses activate ion channels
oSlow synapses activate second messengers
oSome neurotransmitters may activate both
Ach
Nicotinic receptor – ion channel
Muscarinic receptor – second messenger
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Neuromuscular junction neurotransmitter
oAcetylcholine
Neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction
Access acetylcholine is destroyed by acetylcholinesterase,
terminating the transmission
Dopamine and Parkinson’s Disease
oParkinson Disease
Degeneration of dopamine producing neurons of the
substantia nigra
Substantia nigra dopamine neurons inhibit basal ganglion
activity
Loss of inhibition leads to involuntary muscle contraction
Presence of tremor of the hands and pill rolling motions of
thumb and fingers
MPP+
Nervous systems
oCentral nervous systems (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord
oPeripheral nervous system (PNS)
Every other nerve fiber
Afferent division
oInformation to the CNS
Efferent division
oInstructions from the CNS
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