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Lecture 11

PHYS 215 Lecture Notes - Semicircular Canals, Olfactory System, Olfactory Bulb
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by OneClass1121737 , Fall 2016
4 Pages
67 Views

Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYS 215
Professor
Kelly Worden
Lecture
11

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1. Hearing
External, middle, and inner ear
oExternal and middle ear
Transmit sound waves to the fluid-filled inner ears
oInner ear the cochlea
Receptors that convert sound waves into nerve impulse
oVestibular apparatus of the inner ear
Sense of equilibrium
oEach inner ear region has mechanoreceptors
Cochlea (inner ear)
oBasilar membrane – separates the Scala tympani from the Scala
media
oOrgan of Corti – sits on the basilar membrane and contains the
auditory receptor neurons
oTectorial membrane – lies above the organ of Corti
oPerilymph – fluid in the Scala vestibule and Scala tympani
(similar to CSF, low K+, high Na+)
oEndolymph – fluid in the Scala media (similar to ICF, high K+ and
low Na+)
How do we hear?
oSound waves that reach the ear into the external auditory canal
oWaves strike the tympanic membrane causing the membrane to
vibrate
oVibrates slowly in response to low-frequency sounds and rapidly
in response to high-frequency sounds
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Description
1. Hearing  External, middle, and inner ear o External and middle ear  Transmit sound waves to the fluid-filled inner ears o Inner ear the cochlea  Receptors that convert sound waves into nerve impulse o Vestibular apparatus of the inner ear  Sense of equilibrium o Each inner ear region has mechanoreceptors  Cochlea (inner ear) o Basilar membrane – separates the Scala tympani from the Scala media o Organ of Corti – sits on the basilar membrane and contains the auditory receptor neurons o Tectorial membrane – lies above the organ of Corti o Perilymph – fluid in the Scala vestibule and Scala tympani (similar to CSF, low K+, high Na+) o Endolymph – fluid in the Scala media (similar to ICF, high K+ and low Na+)  How do we hear? o Sound waves that reach the ear into the external auditory canal o Waves strike the tympanic membrane causing the membrane to vibrate o Vibrates slowly in response to low-frequency sounds and rapidly in response to high-frequency sounds o Central area of tympanic membrane is connected to the malleus, which also starts to vibrate. Vibration is then picked up by the incus which transmits the vibration to the stapes o Stapes moves back and forth and pushes the oval window in and out  Middle ear bones conduct a signal (vibrations) from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear o Middle ear amplifies tympanic movements and transmits them to the oval window o Movement of the oval window produces waves that travel through the fluid in the cochlea o Cochlea contains the organ of Corti, sense organ for hearing  Sound waves o Consist of alternating regions of compression and refraction of air molecules o Pitch  Depends on the frequency of air waves  Region of the basilar membrane that vibrates o Loudness  Depends on the amplitude of air waves o Timbre  Determined by overtones  Waves in the cochlea o These waves have the same frequency as the sound waves in the air o Different frequencies of eaves disturb different parts of basilar membrane in the cochlea o Hair cells are mounted on the basi
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