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Lecture 5

PHYS 215 Lecture 5: Neurophysiology Part 2

by OneClass1121737 , Fall 2016
7 Pages
24 Views

Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYS 215
Professor
Kelly Worden
Lecture
5

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1. Neurophysiology Part 2
Review
oCell body and dendrites
Graded potentials add up
oAxon hillock
Generation of action potential
3 phases
oAxon
conduction
contiguous (unmyelinated)
salutatory (myelinated)
Myelinating cells
oMyelin – lipid covering
oSchwann cells (neurolemma cells)
Peripheral nervous system
Single axon
Phagocytes
Regenerative
Can promote growth of neuron
oOligodendrocytes
Central nervous system
Multiple axons
Growth inhibition
Don’t want to promote growth like Schwann
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Cell body is external to the axon
How can we promote growth? (Potential but no guarantee)
oBlock inhibitors
oNerve grafts with Schwann cells
oNeuronal stem cells
Multiple Sclerosis
oAffects brain and spinal cord (Central nervous system)
Progressive damage to the myelin
Which type of myelinating cell affected?
Oligodendrocytes (Regeneration is limited)
oCause of MS is unknown
Repeated episodes of inflammation of nervous tissue
Episodes occur when the body’s own immune cells attack
the nervous system (autoimmune disorder)
HHV-6 (Human Herpes Virus Type 6)
Epstein Bar
Can be promoted by decrease in your own immune
function (low vitamin D)  autoimmune disorder
oGuillain-Barre (Schwann cells are attacked)
90% chance recovery in first year because Schwann cells
are regenerative)
Axon Terminal
o3 structures
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Description
1. Neurophysiology Part 2  Review o Cell body and dendrites  Graded potentials add up o Axon hillock  Generation of action potential  3 phases o Axon  conduction  contiguous (unmyelinated)  salutatory (myelinated)  Myelinating cells o Myelin – lipid covering o Schwann cells (neurolemma cells)  Peripheral nervous system  Single axon  Phagocytes  Regenerative  Can promote growth of neuron o Oligodendrocytes  Central nervous system  Multiple axons  Growth inhibition  Don’t want to promote growth like Schwann  Cell body is external to the axon  How can we promote growth? (Potential but no guarantee) o Block inhibitors o Nerve grafts with Schwann cells o Neuronal stem cells  Multiple Sclerosis o Affects brain and spinal cord (Central nervous system)  Progressive damage to the myelin  Which type of myelinating cell affected?  Oligodendrocytes (Regeneration is limited) o Cause of MS is unknown  Repeated episodes of inflammation of nervous tissue  Episodes occur when the body’s own immune cells attack the nervous system (autoimmune disorder)  HHV-6 (Human Herpes Virus Type 6)  Epstein Bar  Can be promoted by decrease in your own immune function (low vitamin D)  autoimmune disorder o Guillain-Barre (Schwann cells are attacked)  90% chance recovery in first year because Schwann cells are regenerative)  Axon Terminal o 3 structures  Muscle (neuromuscular junction)  Neuron (synapse)  Gland (neuroglandular junction or synapse) o Innervation  Muscle or gland  Chemical synapse o Presynaptic neuron:  Axon terminal  Contains synaptic vesicles or secretory granules  Neurotransmitter release o Postsynaptic neuron  Dendrite, cell body  Receptors for neurotransmitter o Synaptic know or Bouton  The swelling at the axon terminal o Synaptic cell  Between the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminal  What is involved in neurotransmitter release? o Interaction of  Proteins  Lipid  Calcium  Docking proteins o Remember? t-SNARES and v-SNARES  Neurons have SNAP-25  Non-neurons have SNAP-23 o Docked vesicles  Dependent on calcium channels to fuse  Calcium channel is at axon terminal  Calcium channels allow the transport of calcium  Voltage gated calcium channels and calcium comes into the cell o Forms micro domains (areas of positivity)  Synaptotagmin  Calcium also acts directly between the two membranes to promote fusion o Kiss and Run theory
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