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Lecture 5

PHYS 215 Lecture 5: Neurophysiology Part 2

7 Pages

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PHYS 215
Kelly Worden

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1. Neurophysiology Part 2  Review o Cell body and dendrites  Graded potentials add up o Axon hillock  Generation of action potential  3 phases o Axon  conduction  contiguous (unmyelinated)  salutatory (myelinated)  Myelinating cells o Myelin – lipid covering o Schwann cells (neurolemma cells)  Peripheral nervous system  Single axon  Phagocytes  Regenerative  Can promote growth of neuron o Oligodendrocytes  Central nervous system  Multiple axons  Growth inhibition  Don’t want to promote growth like Schwann  Cell body is external to the axon  How can we promote growth? (Potential but no guarantee) o Block inhibitors o Nerve grafts with Schwann cells o Neuronal stem cells  Multiple Sclerosis o Affects brain and spinal cord (Central nervous system)  Progressive damage to the myelin  Which type of myelinating cell affected?  Oligodendrocytes (Regeneration is limited) o Cause of MS is unknown  Repeated episodes of inflammation of nervous tissue  Episodes occur when the body’s own immune cells attack the nervous system (autoimmune disorder)  HHV-6 (Human Herpes Virus Type 6)  Epstein Bar  Can be promoted by decrease in your own immune function (low vitamin D)  autoimmune disorder o Guillain-Barre (Schwann cells are attacked)  90% chance recovery in first year because Schwann cells are regenerative)  Axon Terminal o 3 structures  Muscle (neuromuscular junction)  Neuron (synapse)  Gland (neuroglandular junction or synapse) o Innervation  Muscle or gland  Chemical synapse o Presynaptic neuron:  Axon terminal  Contains synaptic vesicles or secretory granules  Neurotransmitter release o Postsynaptic neuron  Dendrite, cell body  Receptors for neurotransmitter o Synaptic know or Bouton  The swelling at the axon terminal o Synaptic cell  Between the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminal  What is involved in neurotransmitter release? o Interaction of  Proteins  Lipid  Calcium  Docking proteins o Remember? t-SNARES and v-SNARES  Neurons have SNAP-25  Non-neurons have SNAP-23 o Docked vesicles  Dependent on calcium channels to fuse  Calcium channel is at axon terminal  Calcium channels allow the transport of calcium  Voltage gated calcium channels and calcium comes into the cell o Forms micro domains (areas of positivity)  Synaptotagmin  Calcium also acts directly between the two membranes to promote fusion o Kiss and Run theory
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