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HIS 1005

History 1005 5/31/2012 10:52:00 AM 5/31/12 History 1005 David Parsons [email protected] st 1 textbook can get earlier version but voices of freedom get latest edition (3rdedition- bring voices of freedom to class) Freedom- shifting/dynamic but its not this or that, a lot of arguments about what it is , who gets it…  1861-1865 Civil war- mainly about slavery o South- rural way of life including slavery (African) vs. North- industrial way of life o Slavery is abolished Reconstruction- after civil war, 1865-1877  What place do former African slaves play in American landscape?  Reconstruction fails o Why? They said black people weren’t ready for freedom yet (this view didn’t change until 1960’s)  The white power succeeded in getting back their racial system- new view 1890- 2/3 of American workers are working for wages, birth of labor or working class Slavery by another name (movie)  Slavery didn’t end with the civil war and it continued up until the WWII era o Accomplished through the prison system  How did African Americans gain freedom after the civil war?  How did African Americans lose freedom after the civil war? Historiography- “history of history”, how history changes and the perspective on things 6/4/12 “Progressivism”/ Progressive era- 1895-1920, things got better for labor because of political developments Reconstruction is a failure because it didn’t address the main question- what do we do with these people who were slaves and what is their status (particularly in the south) Reconstruction- of nation after civil war (1865-1877)  Country was physically and ideologically demolished o Northern- industrial o Southern- rural, agricultural What does freedom mean?  Once slavery is lifted, blacks had certain expectations: o Freedom “from” slavery o Freedom to:  1. Political participation (voting)  2. Education  3. Own their own land  4. Religious freedom  5. Freedom to travel (big because slavery broke apart families) o Whites still treated blacks like inferiors 3 Stages of reconstruction:  1. Presidential Reconstruction- controlled by Andrew Johnson (took over for Lincoln) o He’s a southerner o He’s a racist and hostile to the blacks o Makes a very moderate reconstruction o Went easy on South o Created radical reconstruction- republicans took over congress and passed many more radical laws aimed at securing rights for black people (they were mad at Andrew because not following Lincoln who emancipated slaves) o Andrew supported the black codes- laws passed in the south after the civil war that were aimed at taking away and defining and limiting the liberties of blacks in the south (a lot like slavery), they have apprenticeship laws- allowed for whites to take black children away from their parents when deemed not good to support them and then can use them to work, denied rights like not allowed interracial marriage  2. Radical Reconstruction- o Radical republicans  Believed that blacks should enjoy same liberties as everyone else th  14 amendment- no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law  Defined black people as citizens (if you’re born here you have civil liberties) th  15 amendment- no voting discrimination based on race o Black politicians and black people taking power  P.B.S. Pinchback- very briefly governor of Louisiana in 1873 during radical reconstruction o Brief time that blacks had some liberties and power o Carpetbaggers and Scalawags- whites who worked for radical reconstruction in the south  Carpetbaggers- northern whites (NY) went down to the south to help out, packed their bag and went down south to participate in reconstruction, seen as opportunists, southerners don’t like them because they’re leaching off them  Scalawags- white southerners who support black freedom, they’re republicans, they’re seen as traitors by the south  They both wanted a free labor market like we have now  How can blacks participate in free labor?  3. “Fall of reconstruction” o 1. White terror (KKK- violence against innocent people to make political points and instill fear, threatens white and black people but especially black people) o 2. Rise of liberal republicans (“moderate”)- new party that weren’t into securing rights for black people and the best man should be ruling the south (white, rich men) o 3. High degree of northern racism- why are we helping these black people? They’re lazy, criminals…  Racism- psychological, political, economic o 4. Depression of 1873 Historical documents:  “What”/ content/summary- Who? When? Where? Why was this written? What/Who is the audience?  Why/ analysis- thesis? (write down in a sentence) evidence? What does this document tell us about the era? Frederick Douglas (radical)- The Composite Nation  Douglas was an advocate for equal rights for Asian Americans  Multi-culturalism is not a weakness, it’s a strength  Condemned anti-Asian discrimination and wanted total equality “Freedmen”  If you work it, live on it, you own it”  “Sharecropping” Black codes:  Define and limit rights, behavior Elizabeth Cady Stanton  “Cult of domesticity” –women’s sphere (women are being increasingly separate from men, rise of industrialization means more men are leaving the house to get jobs in factories) Robert Elliot  14 thamendment= protect liberty and equality in Declaration of Independence, all citizens and corporations 6/6/12 Gilded Age (chapter 16) 1860-1896 Key Terms:  1. Andrew Carnegie  2. The patrons of husbandry (“grange”)  3. “Boss” William Tweed  4. Social Darwinism  5. Haymarket Affair Industrialization- 2ndindustrial revolution Gilded (made to look pretty on the outside even though in the inside its not)- extreme explosion of wealth, but most people didn’t share in the economic wealth, produced inequality and misery for a lot of humanity 1880- people weren’t farmers anymore, majority are working non- agriculture jobs A lot of immigrants come filling up NY first Chicago is economically important (wood, cows/cattle, grain) and explodes in population because of central railroad system- connecting NY and the rest of those states to the rest of the nation  Main reason- central place where the railroads all met  Railroads were common before civil war but after they became an obsession  People thought of US as a much smaller place because of railroads  Railroads help produce standardized time zones  Railroads are the first corporations o Accounting and legal A lot of inventions during this age  Electric light bulb, phonographic (both by Edison) Leaders of these large corporations  Andrew Carnegie- believed in philanthropy, invented theory of gospel of wealth- philanthropy, born poor in Scotland, o Vs. considered to be a “robber baron”- big fat capitalist pig  Rockefeller- considered to be the richest in history, ruthless capitalist, controlled 90% of oil industry Fear that these industrial giants were taking over all aspects of society (political cartoon)- fear that these business would even take control of aspects of the government Patrons of husbandry (“the grange”)- farmers, angry because railroads are being built in their backyards and they don’t want to be drawn into these industrial life, very upset about what they perceive to be inequality in the way they’ve been treated, railroads were setting prices for grains and farmers were losing control, big producers favored over small ones  In response, farmers create patrons of husbandry (like unions)- come together in late 1860’s, cultural aspect to the grange like dances  Main motto was cooperation  Grange was precursor for later movements  Sets up dichotomy for populism (the people) vs. capitalism Politics in Gilded Age  Politics= Corruption o Politicians made a lot of money by connecting themselves to the elites o Politics were criminal o “Boss” William Tweed- American NY figure that “ran this city” as a criminal politician for a period of about 20 years  Voice of the poor Irish  Leader of democratic party in NY  Controlled the democratic machine- the democratic party owns everything in the city and everyone votes for them  12 million dollars for himself by corruption  Stole about 200 million in tax money from NY  Put in jail and died in disgrace in the streets and buried in Brooklyn  Shows political corruption of the era Revolution of thought that comes with industrialism:  Social Darwinism- Charles Darwin and survival of the fittest- creatures that were the most fit for surviving their environment would continue and live and those that aren’t, will die o Applies it to humanity and social class- if you are poor/rich its an expression of your own failure/strength, puts everything on the individual  Tremendous class inequality o William Sumner writes about social Darwinism o Americans are beginning to see poverty not as a problem of society but of weak people Labor revolt is signified by the Haymarket Affair  Organized labor- groups of people who fight for and agitate for better treatment (at work like factory conditions- 8 hour day, child labor, equal pay for equal work)  The knights of labor- organized strikes for waging conditions, and had cultural activities, provided us with labor day  The Haymarket Affair (Chicago, 1886)- big rally in the square of the town and knights of labor show up and police are there and someone throws a bomb at the police and it kills 8 policemen, leaders of the knights were charged with murder and were executed even though no proof (martyrdom) o Demonstrates violence that was happening between labor and police o Also shows that the government was on the side against labor and for the corporations  George Engel gave a statement as he was being hanged o Helps us understand deep contradictions of this age “There will be blood” movie (2007)  About an oil baron in California, goes to the west to enrich himself  Daniel Plainview is main character vs. Eli Sunday o Daniel- represents capitalism o Eli represents religion or the people  What are the motivations of these characters? That’s not often what they say o Text vs. subtext  Said were gonna hunt quail but really looking for oil  Said he has connections in drilling business to help get started  Its not really his son, the little child is an orphan and using him to gain sympathy  Finally says Im an oil man to his audience- family enterprise, work with my son and encourages his men to bring their families because children mean education, we strive for children, Im sure we’ll find oil here and this place will flourish and itll lead to a church  Eli asked to say a blessing right before they start drilling for oil, it’s a short blessing and wont take long  Plainview is an alcoholic  Lost a man in the well  Eli took a ghost out of a woman  Plainview called it a “show”  The well bursted, they ran back to get the boy  Boy cant hear  Well is on fire  Why are you so sad? Ocean of oil under us! Movie is a novel by Uptonsin Claire  Capitalism vs. Religion 6/7/12 Midterm not next week! Instead, June 21 Populism and Progressivism (Chapter 17 and 18)  Key Terms o Populist Party o American Federation of Labor o Ida B. Wells o Booker T. Washington “vs” W.E.B. DuBois o Triangle shirtwaist factory fire Political reactions to industrialization  1. Grange- farming communities   2. Populism- a lot more organized and political, trying to fight these giant institutions impinging on their lifestyle   3. Progressive era (1920)   4. Liberalism Populist Party- farmers getting together to create a political movement and make laws against big corporations (ex: Eli Sunday)  Populist- any movement that’s about the people  1892 Populist Party- major third party that came along o Simple list of demands  1. Big government can and should deal with social and economic problems  2. Want more democracy- more democratic direct elections, want democracy to reflect will of the people  3. Restrict immigration- specifically alien land ownership, degrees of racism  4. 8 hour workday- trying to unite urban workers with farmers so that they would see their interests as the same (look we’re all getting screwed by giant companies)  5. Regulation of corporations o Gets absorbed into Democratic party o Knights of labor- a radical group (anti-capitalist like communists, socialists, anarchists, libertarians) used violence o American Federation of labor (AFL)- (head by Samuel Gompers) the biggest labor union of the country, it’s not radical!! They’re not anti-capitalists! They embrace management and express business unionism- want wages, benefits and working conditions but not gonna get it through fighting, we’re gonna negotiate South is not industrializing, it’s staying very rural  Jim crow laws throughout the South o Separate but equal facilities made possible by Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) o 1890’s huge increase in number of lynchings in South Ida B. Wells- a black woman writer in the South during the late reconstruction, writes about lynching in a very confrontational way- it’s a disease of white men who were paranoid about sex, it’s nonsense, hysteria of black men raping white women that was an expression of anxiety not that anything is happening, wrote about raping white women in her newspaper, if black men and white women were having sex is was consensual Lynching violates the 14 thamendment (wasn’t applied to the lynching situation) Booker T. Washington- black man, born into slavery and freed by 9 years old, educated, write about what black people should do in US, debates with WEB DuBois, Washington believes black should focus on economic aspects of freedom- pay attention to getting good jobs and getting a trade, blacks need to stop thinking they’re gonna be social equals and try to get job, we can be separate as the fingers but work as a hand, seems hopeless to try to agitate for civil rights in an era where black people are barely seen as human, if blacks improve their place in the economy the civil rights will come eventually W.E.B. DuBois- black man, educated, countered Washington, Washington was betraying people by suggesting this, WEB was a compromiser, Washington is telling us to give up 3 things- political power, access to education and civil rights. DuBois said Washington is giving up, we’re not really moving forward and progressing as human beings. Washington believes its not right to push for more rights and DuBois does. Progressivism- much more urban than populism  Cities were turning into slums because of immigration and poverty  The reaction to that is the progressive era  Progressivism o 1. Middle class professionals (teachers, lawyers) o 2. Urban o 3. Central government should reform society o 4. Science, rational planning, logics, organization, efficiency o 5. Creation of 2 huge institutions  1. Giant corporation  2. Giant regulatory government Triangle shirtwaist factory fire- In Greenwich village in 1911, 500 workers in th a shirtwaist factory making blouses with sewing machines on 14 floor. Doors were closed and everyone was smoking and there were kerosene lamps. If was very dangerous and mostly girls between 18-20. There was a fire and doors were locked to discourage death and they jumped out of the window. Over 100 died in the building and 46 died in the streets.  Helped pushed progressive cause and helped make possible political changes that progressives wanted- this is what happened when you don’t regulate corporations  Important elements o Terrible working conditions in factories o Shows progressive belief in government regulation Muckrakers- progressive journalists, wrote exposes that point out social problems Margaret Sanger- 1 wave feminism, urban reformer, agitating about birth control, one of 11 children but her mom was pregnant 18 times and died of cervical cancer, wrote a column called “What every girl should know” a pamphlet printed out in Brooklyn and handed out in Union Square- talked about what a women’s body was and menstruation and child birth and how women could intervene in their own health, also handed out info about contraceptives, opened a clinic in Brooklyn to distribute contraceptives and arrested for this 6/11/12 Review: Political Economic Social/Cultural Reconstruction (1865-1877)  Political: What is the status of newly freed slaves?  Economic: Industrialization but mainly in the north; labor unions  Social/Cultural: Black codes; women activism, temperance Gilded Age (1870s-1890s)  Political: Big corporations influence on government growth of populist party--- William Jennings Bryan  Economic: Steel, oil, railroads/ Chicago, labor radicalism, Haymarket Affair (labor vs. capital)  Social/Cultural: Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896), Immigrants in urban slums, Social Darwinism Progressive Era (1900-1920)  Private reform movement  Political: large, regulatory federal government to control power of corporations  Economic: Corporations have created monopolies  Social/Cultural: First wave feminism (birth control, voting), Triangle fire, labor laws, Jane Addams “Hull House” (settlement house) o Labor, Women, African Americans, Immigrants, Native Americans  Indian Removal  Declension model (for Native Americans) both physically and culturally but Europeans  Geronimo- warrior, try to wipe white people over the face of the earth because that’s what they’re trying to do to us, his mom, wife and 3 young children were killed by Mexican troops  Chief Joseph- maybe whites and Indians can learn to get along and we can be apart of American life and be protected by the 14 thamendment, hated the injustices that were happening to his people Movie on Geronimo  Geronimo surrendered and made a prisoner and never allowed to go back to his land, taken to Chicago world fair and displayed as an Indian, last words were “I never should have surrendered, should have fought till I was the last man alive  Native Americans have a very different cosmology- stories about nature, animals, coyotes o African Americans were brought in to Christianity and shares the same world view Geronimo (“fight”) revenge, freedom/ independence, self-determination, self defense, cultural continuity Chief Joseph (“negotiate”/ lets work this out) 6/13/12 WWI (chapter 19)  4 Empires were destroyed  Pointless incidence of death  Trench warfare- first time this happened o 2 sides fighting each other on both sides with weapons of war  Submarines  Machine guns  Airplanes  Bombing o Chemical warfare  Mustard gas- puke your guts out when inhaled  Germany and France  10 million people died  Dada- art movement that arose out of France after WWI that was confusing  The US didn’t want to get involved in this war because they had no real cause o Why? Conflicted loyalties in US- no real set idea of who America is made up of and who they would want to follow o But they enter in 1915 (it’s inevitable)  WWI ship that sunk was called the Lusitania- British passenger ship/ cruise liner that was sunk by German submarines (all 1200 passengers died)  Anti-German hysteria in US  Woodrow Wilson  Led US into WWI and argued very powerfully for why they should be involved  US should be more of a global power and should make it “safe for democracy” business globalization  Propaganda- info trying to persuade you into one type of view  Committee of public information (CPI)- first overt propaganda wing of the US government o Anti-German  Leads to real German hatred  Sauerkraut Americans didn’t like that word and called it Liberty Cabbage  US troops called doughboys because they’re fresh and haven’t been destroyed yet  War ends in November 1918  Germans lose o Situation in German was so bad that it led to WWII o Versailles- peace treaty  1. American show- Woodrow Wilson is a big deal here and makes the US much more in charge of things  Wilson determines what the settlement will be  Wilson has 14 points he wants to make- rules of how the world should run (free trade, navigation of the seas)  14 thpoint= League of Nations- designed to prevent conflicts o It fails!  Why?  When Wilson came back to US he told Congress about it and faced opposition from Congress that said why would we give up our power and meet with other countries Senate rejected it  US doesn’t join institution they created!!!  Versailles made Germany pay for the reconstruction of all Europe  Led Germany 10 years later defaulting on their loans and unable to pay Great Depression  That desperation leads to an opening for a demagogue- someone who exploits peoples fears How does it affect the US?  Alcohol o Temperance led to Prohibition (18 thamendment) (1919- 1933)  No more booze  Manufacture, sales or transportation of alcohol in US is prohibited  Doesn’t say cant take swallow it!  People still drank  WWI affects the case for prohibition  When you make liquor your using stuff that should be used for food so they thought we should be using it for bread  Prohibition is not a common act, a lot of people don’t like it  It’s repealed! th  19 Amendment- right of women to vote (no voting discrimination based on sex)  Racism o Anglo Saxon was top of the hierarchy in white race o Southern Italians (Sicilians) were the lowest and were considered not really white o Racist attitudes towards blacks o Wilson had racist attitudes o Birth of a Nation (1915- movie) by DW Griffith  Silent movie  He created the way we watch movies now  His movies were offensive  Talks about reconstruction in the South and the heroes are the KKK (blacks are villains)  No blacks appear in movie  Wilson screens it at the White House  Indication of how shitty the attitude is towards blacks in this era  This leads to the “second KKK” in the South  The first murder is in 1915 when the movie is released WWI is a critical time for African Americans  Rise in racism towards blacks  Leads to the great migration o Blacks move from South to North  When the war started 90% of blacks lived in the rural south  Factories will hire blacks through WWI (North), economic freedom, jobs, hope of schools  Escape the south because racist, violence, no jobs/schools  Move from blacks thought of as rural farm people to urban population WWI was a war for democracy  Ironically, freedom was curtailed in the US during WWI  Red scare (communists) o Communism developed by Marx  Russia has become a communist nation (the Soviet Union)  Communism scares us because its part of anti- capitalism (radical)  All these radicals are part of labor movement  US cracks down on labor organizations  1919 A. Mitchell Palmer (attorney general) and the Palmer Raids destroys labor organizations  1918 Sedition Act passed o Illegal to say bad things about the US government at the time of war (violation of the first amendment) o Eugene Debs violated sedition act  He is the leading socialist political figure in the US who ran for president in 1912 and got almost a million votes  Arrested and charged with treason Americans did not support WWI Why they should/ should not go to war? (3 reasons) Why is the right/wrong? (Group work)  US Government o Promote “democracy” defend  Women o More vital issues at hand o Feminism- changing patriarchy o Gulf between theory and practice  Radicals o WWI is a capitalist war o War is crime- US involvement is hypocrisy because of the lack of freedom at home o Anti- Americanization o Pro “transnational America”  African Americans o Racial pride from military service o WWI will not help blacks achieve equality o Black Star shipping line  Labor o Burden is on workers o Liberty bonds o Ethnic complications 6/14/12 Monday- chapter 21 (Great Depression and New Deal) Wed- Exam Review The 1920’s  Like the 90’s because of: tremendous economy, lots of consumerism, but at the end its followed by a crash  “Culture wars”- actual battles about what culture was (religion vs. secular)  1920’s had Republican domination (presidency and congress)- it’s associated with big business (leave it on its own rather than government regulation), Democrats are associated with regulation and progressive policies, FDR= liberal  Labor movement is not popular at this time  After WWI, production is still booming  Machinery is invented and made cheap for American consumers- made life easier  Cars were commonplace- ½ of all American families own cars  US advances industrially because wasn’t touched by WWI  Boom/bust cycles- 20’s was a boom time  Mass consumption- buying more things that are manufactured far away and you don’t know who made it  Celebrity culture/popular culture  Credit card debt  “Jazz Age”- loose, modern kind of sound  Doctors gave out prescriptions for alcohol  People hung out in bars that gave out alcohol “speakeasies”  Political freedom vs. cultural freedom o Women didn’t really get cultural freedom but got political freedom (right to vote) o “Flappers”- independent, young women who did things society didn’t think women should do (bad girls)
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