The ultimate cause in one from which you could logically proceed to the other causes. You need to be able to go to other causes logically. Material: you have the material matter, but you do not know what to turn it into. Formal: you have the idea of it, but you do not have the material nor do you know who is going to make it. Efficient: you have the design of the object and you know what it"s made out of, but you don"t know what the purpose is. Example: i give you a perfect design. Why would you not build it: don"t have enough money. Not for your purpose: already have too many palaces. This is the ultimate cause: you need to have a purpose for anything and everything before you can build it. With a purpose you know what you need, you know what to make it into, and you know who to ask to make it.