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Lecture 9

PSY 3065 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Social Facilitation, Social Loafing, Stanford Prison Experiment

Course Code
PSY 3065

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Chapter 9 Group Processes
Milgra’s experiet conducted at Yale in 1960s told experiment is about memory
o gave higher shocks for each wrong answer to another participant (upto 450 volts average was 360)
however 62.5% gave 450-volt shocks
Group two or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them
to influence each other
o 3 key characteristics of this: 2 or more people, interdependence, and interaction
Social roles shared expectations in a group about ow particular people are supposed to behave in that group
o if tangled in a group individual identities and personalities can get lost
o Stanford prison study zimbarado (1973) randomly assigned male volunteers to play roles for two weeks
(prisoners and guards) quickly assumed these roles
experiment went on for only 6 days
Group cohesiveness qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
o more cohesive a group the more: they stay in this group, take part in group activites, and try to recuit like
minded members
o group diversity group members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs and opinions
Social facilitation people do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of
others and their individual performance can be evaluated
o if task is simple, well-learned: presence of others improves performance found not only in humans but
other species
o if task is more difficult: presence can take longer to solve when in presence of others found not only in
humans but other species when task is difficult
Social loafing when people are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated
o the tendency to perform worse on simple or unimportant tasks but better on complex or important tasks
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