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Lecture 13

FORS 3331 Lecture 13: Dr. Ferraro - FORS 3331 - Spring 2017 - Lecture 13

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Forensic Science
FORS 3331
Joseph V.Ferraro

Baker | FORS 3331 | Spring 2017 | Lecture 13 | Page 1 LECTURE 13: RIBS AND SCAPULA The Thorax – A cage of cartilage and bone attached posteriorly to the vertebral column – Serves to protect organs like the heart and lung – Made up of the sternum and 12 ribs on each side: o Ribs1-7:trueribs–attachtosternumdirectlyviacartilage o Ribs 8-10: false ribs – attach to sternum indirectly via cartilage o Ribs 11-12: floating ribs – free floating The Ribs – Ribs 1-10 ossify from 4 centers o The epiphysis for the head and articular and non-articular parts of the tubercle appear in the teens o The epiphyses fuse to the rib body in early adulthood – Ribs 1-10 articulate posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae – Rib length increases from rib 1-7 then decreases from 7-12 – The headof most ribs articulates with vertebraof its own number and with the vertebra immediately superior o i.e. the 7 rib attaches to the superior costal facet of T7 and to the inferior costal facet of T6 – Ribs 1, 11, and 12 typically articulate with their own vertebra – The tubercles of ribs attach to the transverse process of its own number Anatomy – Head – large, posterior tip o Has two articular surfaces (demifacets) for thoracic vertebrae o Ribs 1 and 10-12 only have 1 facet each – Neck – between the head and articulation with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae o i.e. between the head and tubercle – Tubercle – on the posteroinferior corner of each rib o The facet articulates with the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra – Costal Angle – sharp curve in the bone lateral to the tubercle – Shaft – Body – curved, tapering portion between the tubercle and the anterior end – Sternal End – the anterior end of the shaft o Roughened, porous, cupper oval surface o The costal cartilage attaches to this end – Cranial Edge – upper edge – blunt, smooth, and convex – Caudal Edge – lower edge – sharp with costal groove on medial surface o The concave costal groove houses the intercostal artery, vein, and nerve Baker | FORS 3331 | Spring 2017 | Lecture 13 | Page 2 Identifying the Ribs – 1 Rib – unusual and easily diagnosed o It is short, broad, and superoinferiorly flattened and tightly curved o Has only one articular facet on its small rounded head o Its cranial (upper) surface is roughed by muscle attachments of the lateral-anterior neck (anterior scalene) nd st – 2 Rib – intermediate between the unusual 1 rib and typical ribs 3-9 o Has a large tuberosity nearthe lateralmidshaft formusclesof the lateral-anterior thorax (serratus anterior) – 10 Rib – like ribs 3-9 o Only has one articular facet on the head though th – 11 Rib – only one articular facet on the head o Lacks a tubercle o Has a narrow pointed sternal end o Slight angle o Shallow costal groove th th – 12 Rib – shorter than the 11 o May be shorter than the 1st o Similar to the 11 anatomically o Lacks an angle and costal groove Siding the Ribs – 1 Rib – head and neck face inferiorly o The superior surface also has grooves for the subclavian artery and vein o Muscle attachment for anterior sc
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