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Notes on Muscular Synergists

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BIOL 1300
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Muscular Synergists: 1. Scapula (S-T joint: no synovial capsule ‘functional joint’) a. upward rotation: trapezius (superior and inferior parts), serratus anterior (inferior part) nerves: accessory (CN XI) (C3,4); long thoracic (C5,6,7) b. downward rotation: gravity, levator scapulae, rhomboideus (major and minor), latissimus dorsi, pectoralis minor, pectoralis major (inferior sternocostal head) nerves: dorsal scapular (C5); thoracodorsal (C6,7,8); medial pectoral (C8, T1); lateral pectoral (C5, 6, 7) c. elevation: trapezius (superior part), levator scapulae, rhomboideus (major and minor) nerves: accessory (CN XI) (C3,4); dorsal scapular (C5) d. depression: gravity, pectoralis major (inferior sternocostal head), pectoralis minor, lattisimus dorsi, trapezius (inferior part), serratus anterior (inferior part) nerves: lateral pectoral (C5,6,7); medial pectoral (C8, T1); dorsal scapular (C5); accessory (CN XI); thoracodorsal (C6,7,8) e. protraction: serratus anterior, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor nerves: thoracodorsal (C6,7,8); lateral pectoral (C5,6,7); medial pectoral (C8, T1) f. retraction: trapezius (middle part), rhomboideus (major and minor), latissimus dorsi nerves: accessory (CN XI) (C3,4); dorsal scapular (C5); thoracodorsal (C6,7,8) 2. Humerus (Glenohumeral—GH—joint: ball and socket synovial) *SItS muscles primary role is to hold humeral head in the glenoid cavity during all movements at the gh joint. a. flexsion: deltoid (anterior part), bicepitalis brachii (long and short heads), coracobrachialis, pectoralis major (clavicular head) nerves: axillary (C5,6); musculocutaneous (C5,6,7); medial pectoral (C8, T1); lateral pectoral (C5,6,7) b. extension: deltoid (posterior part), latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major (sternocostal head from flexed position), tricepitalis brachii nerves: axillary (C5,6); thoracodorsal (C6,7,8); medial pectoral (C8,T1) and lateral pectoral (C5,6,7); radial (C5,6,7,8, T1) c. aBduction: deltoid (middle part); supraspinatus; *see upward rotators of scapula **combined with upward rotation of the scapula (scapulothoracic joint) after the first 30 degrees of aBduction: 0-30 gh joint, 30-90 1:2 st joint:gh joint, >90 1:1 st:gh. Of the 180 degrees of rotation, 120 gh and 60 st ***subacromial space is so limited that during full aBduction of the arm we have to laterally rotate (SIt, posterior deltoid) the humerus to move the greater tuberostiy out of the way. ****long head of triceps helps resists dislocation of humerus from glenoid cavity during aBduction d. aDduction: latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis, coracobrachialis, pectoralis major nerves: thoracodorsal (C6,7,8); lower subscapular (C5,6); upper and lower subscapular (C5,6); musculotaneous (C5,6,7); medial and lateral pectoral (C8, T1)(C5,6,7) e. medial rotation: latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis, pectoralis major, deltoid (anterior part) nerves: thoracodorsal (C6,7,8); lower subscapular (C5,6); upper and lower subscapular (C5,6); medial and lateral pectoral (C8,T1)(C5,6,7); axillary (C5,6) f. lateral rotation: deltoid (posterior), suprasp
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