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Lecture 31

BIOL 3030 Lecture 31: Lecture 31: 4/10/2017: Sex and Reproduction
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3030
Professor
Christopher Kenaley

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Reproductive Physiology II: Human Reproductive Physiology ➢ Direct and indirect development ○ Metamorphosis: linear growth trajectory ○ Plasticity of life stage ■ Alter phenotype ○ Human aspects of mc ■ Hormonal influence ■ ovulation/menstruation ■ Implantation ■ Placental development ○ Length of gestation ➢ Lecithitropic viviparous species ○ Nutrients from egg not mother ■ Born live ■ Squalus acanthias: eggs develop from own yolk and born live ○ Issues: limit to growth: fewer eggs ■ Oxygen: placenta, low partial pressure from mother ■ Calcium ■ Waste removal: ○ Maxilla: move mandibula in flapping motion to get oxygen ➢ Matrotrophic oviparity ○ Nutrition from mother but born as eggs ○ Monotreme: eggs, minimal yolk, incubatorium lactation ■ After birth they get lactose from mom ○ Mammalia: mammary gland ■ Incubatorium: Have precursor to marsupial pouch ○ Caecilian amphibians: eating mother’s skin layer ■ Packs skin with lipids and nutrients ■ Born through eggs ➢ Matrotrophic vivaparity ○ Nutrients from mother, born live ■ Many non amniotes and non tetrapods ○ Egg develops trophonomata: pokes out of gut and attaches to inside of uterus ■ Sac surrounding yolk penetrates wall of uterus: ○ Oophagy: eating eggs, first embryo start eating later embryos ➢ Placental matrotrophic viviparity in amniotes through placenta ■ Amniotic development hallmark ■ Placentas evolved twice ○ Marsupials: choriovitelline placenta ■ Adhere to mother: vitelline: develop within tissues ○ Eutherians: chorioallantoic placenta ■ Different lining ■ Cells and tissue fuse: develop envelope to fuse cell boyd/dna with another cell ○ Oxygen: membranes are so close and exchange everythi
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