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Lecture 15

lecture 15 notes.docx

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BIOL 3040
Anthony Annunziato

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Lecture Fifteen 02/21/2014 There are histone PTM writers, erasers, and readers Now going to move to DNA itself and talk about DNA marks that repress transcription C5 can be methylated (5’ = sugar 5 = in base) Virtually all we’re going to talk about, methylation is in this sequence In the methylation field, there is just a jargon of using the P in between C and G (phosphate)  *As long as its CG in the middle, that is potential C for methylation Typically less than 5% of all the Cs are methylated but up to 90% of Cs is 5’­CpG­3’ are methlyated Not a common modification Methyl comes from SAMe 5’ carbon has a methionine (amino acid hooked up to nucleotide) it has a methyl group that is the universal methyl donor (protein, DNA/RNA methylation, etc.) DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) does the methylation Done symmetrically Epigenetic mark­heritable mark that will regulate transcription “Maintenance” methylation: heritable through DNA replication (S phase) hemi­methylated at first and that is the substrate to get fully methylated like parent strand right at replication fork In mammalian cells, CpG’s are concentrated in CpG “islands” Clustered in areas where that dinucleotide is quite higher than you would predict Typically about 300­3,000 bp,in or near ~40% of promoters  of mammalian cells Regulatory Methylated CpG recuits repressor proteins  that recognize methyl
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