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Genome Evolution.docx

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BIOL 3150

Genome Evolution (Chapter 18) • All life on earth thought to be derived from some ancestral DNA-based cellular life • First cell thought to originate 3.5 billion years ago • Several lines of evidence support a hypothesis for an “RNAworld” as precursors to DNAbased cellular life (RNAworld hypothesis) o 1) Certain RNAmolecules could behave as ribozymes, having enzymatic abilities o 2) Some of most fundamental processes inside cells depend on RNAs acting as genetic carriers, structural platforms, or catalysts  protein translation depends on tRNAs as genetic translators and peptide bond formation is catalyzed by ribosomal rRNAs  intron splicing depends on small RNAcomponents in snRNPs to recognize splice sites  the RNAcomponent of telomerase provides critical template for extension of ends of eukaryotic chromosomes • genomes of eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble prokaryotic genomes, supporting endosymbiotic theory by Lynn Margulis • DNAmore stable than RNA • Evidence for first eukaryotic life traced back to 1.4 billion years ago in form of single celled algae • Genomes could acquire new genes through lateral gene transfer from other organisms, gene duplication, unequal recombination • Globin gene superfamily is thought to arise via a series of gene duplication events • Duplication of homeotic selector gene (development of fly segements) clusters may underline developmental evolution of vertebrates (Hox gene) • Antisense transcripts could give rise to new
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