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Genome Mutations and Damage.docx

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BIOL 3150

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Genome Mutations and Damage (Chapter 16) • Mutations constantly arise within genomes and are corrected by cellular DNArepair machines • Most DNApolymerase contain proofreading activities resided in their 3’to5’exo domain to minimize errors during DNASynthesis (DNApoly I, III, gamma, delta) stimulated by incorrect incorporation • Mutations could be due to errors in DNAreplication or effects of mutagens • Replication slippage of microsatellite repeats can give rise to repeat variations • Expansion of trinucleotide repeats has been linked to a number of human diseases – HUNTINGTONS • In addition to deletion and insertions of nucleotides, point mutations can be divided into two categories o Transitions: purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine o Transversions: purine to pyrimidine or vice versa • Mutagen is one of several classes of environmental agents that cause damage to cells o 1) Ba
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