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Lecture 1

BIOL 4270 Lecture 1: Cardiovascular_lab_hand_out

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 4270
Professor
Thimmiah
Semester
Fall

Description
You should be able to identify the following structures and know their functions. Structures to be identified before making a frontal section of the heart .1. Locate the Surfaces, Apex and Base of the heart a. .How many surfaces? (clue - Auricles) 2 (with 4 chambers) b. Locate the chambers on each surface a. 2 superior atria (Right and Left)= receiving chambers b. 2 inferior ventricles (right and left)= discharging chambers; force the blood out of the heart into the large arteries that emerge from its base c. Describe the position of the heart in the thoracic cavity. Located in the mediastinum of the thorax. Flanked laterally by the lungs, posteriorly by the vertebral column and anteriorly by the sternum 2. Pericardium a. How many layers? 3 What is the function of each layer? 1. Epicardium= outer layer, which is also the visceral pericardium 2. Myocardium= middle and thickest layer, which is composed mainly of cardiac muscle; reinforced with dense irregular connective tissue, the cardiac skeleton, which is thicker around the heart valves and at the base of the great vessels leaving the heart 3. Endocardium= inner lining of the heart, which covers the heart valves and its continuous with the inner lining of the great vessels. It is composed of simple squamous epithelium resting on areolar connective tissue b. Name the layers= epicardium, myocardium and endocardium c. Which layer is closest to the heart and which one is the farthest? 1. Epicardium= furthest from the heart 2. Endocardium= closest to the heart d. Which layer is present in the heart that you are dissecting? 1. e. Is there a space between the layers? What does it contain and what is the normal quantity? Space between the layers contains serous fluid produced by the membranes allowing the heart to beat in a relatively frictionless movement f. What is pericarditis and pericardial effusion? g. What is cardiac tamponade? 3. Myocardium and describe function of each one of the following a. .Right ventricle – measure the thickness of the myocardium i. Ventricles form the bulk of the heart, they are discharging chambers. They force blood out of the heart into the large arteries that emerge from its base b. .Left ventricle – measure the thickness of the myocardium i. Ventricles form the bulk of the heart, they are discharging chambers. They force blood out of the heart into the large arteries that emerge from its base c. Right atrium i. Receiving chamber; ineffective as pumps d. .Left atrium i. Receiving chamber; ineffective as pumps 4. Anterior Interventricular sulcus, Posterior interventricular sulcus and Atrioventricular groove. What is the significance of these sulci and the groove? a. Anterior interventricular sulcus= one of the two grooves that seperates the ventricles of the heart b. Posterior interventricular sulcus= the other one c. Atrioventricular groove= one of the grooves on the external surface of the heart 5. Branches of the coronary Artery - (locate, just approximate location) and their area of supply a. Right Coronary artery b. Left coronary artery c. Anterior interventricular (descending) artery Why does a thrombus in this branch cause sudden death? Thrombus in the cornary artery will lead to obstruction of blood flow to the heart leading to ischemia of cardiac muscle and a heart attack d. Posterior Interventricular (descending)artery e. Circumflex artery f. Marginal artery g. What is Angina pectoris and Myocardial infarction? i. Chest pains due to a thombus in the coronary artery hea
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