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Lecture

10-18-12 ch. 10 end .docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1161
Professor
Schlegel
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch.10 End 10/18/2012 • Organic vs. Inorganic  • Organic­ contains carbon, hydrogen, sometimes nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen • Inorganic­ if carbon is not present (salts, nonmetals bonding with metals, ionic compounds)  Alkanes/Cycloalkanes  • • Alkanes­ carbons bonded to each other • Cycloalkane­ two carbons bonded to each other to form a cycle  • Lewis structure , condensed formula, skeletal formula  • Condensed formula­carbon and hydrogen atoms with hyphens  • Skeletal formula­ you draw zigzags for each carbon, each point stands for a carbon  EX: propane  10.3 Alkanes with Substituents  Isomers • Have the same molecular formula with different atom arrangements • Of butane (C4H10) are a straight chain and a branched chain • Condensed­ CH3­CH2­CH2­CH3 • Other possible­              CH3                          CH3      CH         CH3                        1 methyl propane                   substituent  • The isomers of butane have the same number and type of atoms, but the atoms are bonded in a  different order Substituents and Alkyl Groups  • Substituents are atoms or groups of atoms attached to the carbon chain and include alkyl and halo  groups. • Alkyl groups are carbon branches attached to carbon chains named with a   ending • Halo substituents are  • halogens attached to the carbon chain named as fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo Naming Alkanes                                             hexane                                        substituent (methyl group): 3­methyl hexane  EX: Give the IUCAP name for the following compound:   butane  substituents: 1,2 di­bromo­3­methylbutane  Guide to Drawing Formulas for Alkanes                          EX: Draw the condensed structural formula for  3­bromo­1­chlorobutane. 10.4 Properties of Alkanes Some Uses ofAlkanes 2 Alkanes with one to four carbons are gases at room temperature and are widely used as heating fuels. methane, ethane, propane, butane Butane has four carbons: Alkanes with five to eight carbons are highly volatile liquids at room temperature, making them useful in fuels such as gasoline.
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