Chapter 12 Cont.. 11/06/2012
A. Alcohols end it with –ol
B. Thiols add thiol to the end
C. Aldehydes add –al
D. Ketones add –one to the end
2. Classification of Alcohols 1°, 2°, 3 ° carbon bonded to alcohol bonded to 1 carbon, 2
carbons, or 3 carbons
3. Reactions of alcohols and Thiols
1°, oxidize an alcohol an aldehyde, then a carboxylic acid
2°, oxidized then is a ketone
2 thiols becomes a disulfide bond loss of oxygen
B. Dehydration take out a water, with addition of H+ and heat, has to bsecondary alcohol
12.5 Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
• The polar carbonyl group provides dipoledipole interactions.
d+ d d+ d
• Because the electronegative oxygen atom forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules, aldehydes and
ketones with one to four carbons are very soluble.
• The electronegative O atom of the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones forms hydrogen bonds
with water. AgNO3+ Ag +
• In Benedict’s test, Benedict’s reagent, which contains Cu ,reacts with aldehydes that have an
adjacent OH group.
• An aldehyde is oxidi