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11-6-12 Chapter 13.docx

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CHEM 1161

Chapter 13 Carbohydrates  11/06/2012 13.1 Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are • a major source of energy from our diet • made from elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • also called saccharides, which means “sugars” • are produced by photosynthesis in plants • such as glucose are synthesized in plants from CO , H O, and energy from the sun 2 2 • are oxidized in living cells to produ2e 2O , H O, and energy Types of Monosaccharides 6 Monosaccharides are also classified by the number of carbon atoms present. triose (3 C atoms) tetrose (4 C atoms) pentose (5 C atoms) hexose (6 C atoms) An aldopentose indicates a five-carbon saccharide with an aldehyde group. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 13.2 Fischer Projections of Monosaccharides 13.3 Haworth Structures of Monosaccharides                     Some Monosaccharides 27 Important Pentoses Important Hexoses Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Haworth Structures Haworth projection Fischer projection 6 CH2OH H O H O H 5 O H H 4 OH H 1 1 1 OH H OH H OH 6 3 2 OH 2 2 HOCH2 H OH H HO H H H OH HO 3 H 3 D-glucopyranose HO H OH H OH 5 4 3 2 1 4 4 H OH H OH O 6 CH2OH H OH H 5 HOCH2 5 H 5 O OH 6 H
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