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Lecture

11-8-12 ch 13 cont.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1161
Professor
Schlegel
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch. 13 Cont.. 11/08/2012 • Monosaccharide­ one sugar • Fischer projection­ a skeletal representation of a carbohydrate at top is most oxidized group,  each point is chiral carbon  • Haworth projection­ cyclic polysaccharide •  lpha is pointindown  position, beta is pointupg position  Mutarotation­ take a monosaccharide and dissolve it in water the cyclic structure opens­ alpha and  beta ratios in solution  13.4 Chemical Properties of Monosaccharides  Reducing Sugars Reducing sugars •   are monosaccharides that can be oxidized to give a carboxylic acid •   contain an aldehyde group at the end in the open chain form •   undergo reaction in the Benedict’s test Reduction of Monosacharides The reduction of monosaccharides •   produces sugar alcohols, or alditols •   involves the reduction of the carbonyl group to an alcohol •   such as D­glucose gives D­glucitol, also called sorbitol 13.5 Disaccharides Important Disaccharides A  disaccharide    consists of two monosaccharides. Monosaccharides                          Disaccharide  glucose + glucose                           maltose + H2O glucose + galactose                        lactose  + H2O glucose + fructose                          sucrose + H2O Maltose 6 • composed of two D-glucose molecules • obtained from the hydrolysis of starch • used in cereals, candies, and brewing • Maltose is linked by an α-1,4-glycosidic bond formed from the α −OH on carbon 1 of the first glucose and −OH on carbon 4 of the second glucose. Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Eleventh Edition Lactose 7 Lactose • is found in milk and milk products • is a disaccharide of β-D-galactose and α- orβ-D-glucose • contains a β-1,4-glycosidic bond Chemistry: An Introduction to General, OrganCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.ion Sucrose 8 Sucrose, or table sugar, • is
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