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10-23-12 Chapter 11.docx

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CHEM 1161

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Chapter 11 10/23/2012 1. Isomers­ compound with the same formula but different arrangement of atoms 2. Functional groups­ atoms or groups of atoms that behave in certain ways 3. Saturated vs. unsaturated a. Saturated­maximum number of hydrogens attached to each carbon b. Unsaturated­ does not have max # of hydrogens attached to carbons  11.2 Cis­Tran Isomers  • Alkenes cannot have cis–trans isomers if a carbon atom in the double bond is attached to  identical groups . Naming Cis–Trans Isomers 7 The prefix of cis or trans is placed in front of the alkene name when the compound is a cis or trans isomer. cis trans Br Br Br H C C C C H H H Br cis-1,2-dibromoethene trans-1,2-dibromoethene Chemistry: An Introduction to GenerCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.enth Edition EX: name Br Br cis­1,2­dibromomethene  A. C C H H CH3 H B. C C trans­2­butane H CH 3 CH 3 Cl C. C C 1,1­dichloropropene H Cl 11.3 Addition Reactions Addition Reactions • In alkene and alkynes, • the double or triple bond is easily broken, providing electrons to form new bonds • double and triple bonds are very reactive • in addition reactions, reactants are added to the carbon atoms in the double or triple bond Adding H t2 double bonds in vegetable oils produces • compounds with higher melting points • solids at room temperature, such as margarine, soft margarine, and shortening EX: Write an equation for the hydrogenation of 1­butene using a platinum  catalyst.          Pt = catalyst                   Pt CH =2H­CH ­CH 2 +  H3   ▯  2 CH ­CH ­C3 ­CH2  2 3 C2H4+2H2▯C3H8 Trans Fats  • The process of hydrogenation is used commercially to convert the double bonds in the unsaturated fats  in vegetable oils to saturated fats such as margarine, which are more solid. • Adjusting the amount of added hydrogen produces partially hydrogenated fats such as soft margarine,  solid margarine in sticks, and shortenings, which are used in cooking. • • The addition reaction of Br  across a double bond is used to test for the presence of double bonds. A  2 positive result turns a clear solution red. When hydration occurs with a double bond that has an unequal num er of H atoms   ,  • the H atom bonds to the C in the double bond with the more H • the OH bonds to the C in the double bond with the fewer  H atoms Learning Check 14 Write the product for the hydration of each of the following. H + 1. CH -CH -CH=CH-CH -CH + HOH 3 2 2 3 CH 3 + H 2. CH 3C=CH-CH -CH2 3 + HOH H + 3. + HOH Chemistry: An Introduction to General, OrganCopyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.ion 1. CH3­CH2­CH­ CH­CH2­CH3 2.   CH3 CH3­C­ CH­CH2­CH3       OH  H 3.  11.4 Polymers of Alkenes  Polymers Polymers are  • large, long­chain molecules • found in nature, including cel
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