APSY 1031 Lecture 1: 1-26_FamilySchoolSociety_Longo

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Boston College
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 1031
Francesca Longo

Family, School, and Society (APSY1031.06) January 26, 2017 SONA representative came in to speak - Each half hour is worth 1 credit, need to fulfill 4 credits - Sign up with Lynch system (more information provided on syllabus) - If you can’t participate, article writings are required - Any questions, please email [email protected] or [email protected] Housekeeping - Make sure syllabus is up to date (on Canvas), assigned readings/current event articles are now in place if you want to start - Later tonight, Google sheet will be put up with date and times for meetings with Professor Longo; to discuss what you’re interested in learning about, get to know you - When it’s your turn to present, you have to do thorough reading to prepare for teaching the class o Otherwise, please at least scan them to get an idea of what discussions would be about o Read most of the book by discussion date, but not necessarily finish Brain Architecture Game Discussion - Social supports acted as buffer from risk of negative life experiences o Sports programs o Churches o Safe neighborhoods Microsystems that promote healthy development - Rough start but strong education helped stay strong - Pileup of life stress usually leads to worse outcomes but some take those initial stresses and learn from them (resilience) - Different responses to situations depending on the type of person Uri Bronfenbrenner - Before Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied children, economists studied the economic framework, etc. As a result of his work, people started to intermingle and interdisciplinary research came out because children are affected by all the factors - At the time, we weren’t getting to the complexity of the situation by looking so narrowly at kids Article Summary Structure - Main theory - Main points - Conclusions - Discussion questions/activities Uri Bronfenbrenner Proposition 1 - Development happens in interactions with people and surroundings. There is participation on both sides. Not just parents influencing kids but vice versa. - One interaction once isn’t going to influence development as much as repeated interactions. - He talks about proximal processes: things that happen close to you in your life o Parent-child/child-child interaction, solitary and group play, learning new skills, reading, studying, etc Proposition 2 - Everything matters. Characters, environment and proximal processes matter differently for different outcomes. - Examples: o Individual characters (e.g. if one twin starts reading first, will interact with parent differently than other twin) o Environment (e.g. in safe neighborhoods, authoritarian parenting seen as strict and harmful but in dangerous neighborhood, seen as buffer) o Outcome also changes the proximal process (e.g. positive interactions with teachers have a greater impact on intellectual/cognitive development than physical development) Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model - 5 nested environmental systems - Child is at very center of model - Microsystem o Closest and direct interaction with the child (family, school, daycare, peers, church, health services) o Child is active agent (where proximal processes take place) o Dual interaction: bi-directional - Exosystem o Links and processes between two and more settings, at least one in which child isn’t directly participating in (e.g. parent workplace) - Macrosystem o Attitudes, ideologies of the culture (e.g. laws, customs, beliefs, material resources, hazards) o Constraints what a child or parent can do - Mesosystem o Connections and processes between two or more settings (e.g. siblings interacting differently with neighborhood, mom going to parent-teacher conference) o Interaction between different systems - Chronosystem o Transitions over the life course o Effects created by time or critical periods in development o Example: Divorce that happens earlier in lifetime seen as more negative than if it happened later in life - Bronfenbrenner’s model is overarching theme of this class o Constantly going to come back to this model - Other main points o This is a contextual model. Everything happens in a context; children don’t grow up in a vacuum. Traits, personality come from interactions o Proximal processes: how you’re interacting with the environment is how your gene will be expressed. Can lead to different gene expressions. By studying development in this way, can see how all these different factors are related to development - Twin study o When looking at three different factors of birthrate to see relation between each other, found that proximal processes mattered overall. But effects was different depending on environment and individual personality o Low birthrate affects you depending on your environment and parent- relations o Used as an example to show that proximal processes have different effects in different environments - Conclusion o To learn about children, need to study them in the system they naturally exist o Not just look at kids within family, but also school and neighborhood, etc to get a full picture of how they’re developing o Actual genetic potential are greater than previously believed ▪ If your parents have high IQ, you may have even higher IQ because of your exposure and potential to that Watched video to illustrate idea of children interacting in context (Building Adult Capabilities to Improve Child Outcomes) - Main idea: we can try to intervene at different places within the model to bring about best outcomes - You need policy, community, parents, everyone on board Discussion: think about a context/problem that a kid can have and what you can do at all levels of the model to solve that problems - Autism o Microsystems (environment, family, support) o Exosystems (parents making enough money to give child opportunities, medical/insurance expenses, good supportive neighborhoos) o Macrosystem (laws are important, disability rights, media being supportive) - Child illness o Microsystem (family support, good doctor) o Exosystem (parent’s job, health insurance, income, hospital funding/medical research) o Macrosystem (health laws connected to research/insurance) o Chronosystem (medical advancements) Is the model logical or not? - Makes sense but not distinct lines/limits because many things might overlap - Great framework but hard to come up with concrete things in each category Elrich and Feldman (2007) - Heritability o Came out of agriculture, trying to breed the best animals ▪ In this, can control the environment o Doesn’t work the same way for humans ▪ When scientists tried to adapt this narrowsense heritability, came up with broad-sense heritability (assumes no relationship between genetic and environment) o Critical of this theory o In twin studies, things get muddled - Molecular Genetics o Does better than heritability of measuring genetic input o For example, children with down syndrome can achieve more with supportive environments o Looks at work that prove that children are likely to have different outcomes even if same genetic structure - Conclusion: both genes and environment matter, cannot separate their contribution to human behaviors o Even for twins, they share a
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