APSY 2032 Lecture 8: Feb 20_Psych of Learning_Perez

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Boston College
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2032

Long-term Memory, Continued. How is information retrieved from long-term memory? Retrieval: The Crux of Memory • Endel Tulving (renowned memory researcher) • But why would retrieval be more critical of a process than encoding or storage? o If we were limited to encoding and storing info and could not actually retrieve that information later, our memories would be useless • Available v. Accessible Info o Available  All of the info you’ve ever encoded and currently have stored in LTM o Accessible  the info you can actually remember through some form of retrieval process Retrieval Types • Recognition o Simplest form o Identifying a present stimulus • Recall o More difficult form of retrieval o Generating an absent stimulus o Most susceptible to distortion and “leading” • Cued Recall o Retrieving information from LTM aided by cues or “hints” • Free Recall o Retrieving information from LTM w/o cues o More difficult than cued recall What about recalling more complex memories, such as events? Recall of Complex Memories • Reconstruction o A kind of recall o Retrieval of complex information o Specific details typically changed, gist and critical details typically retained • What influences how we reconstruct memories? o Beliefs o Culture o Filters • Are our memories of critical details of an event always reliable? o Not always! o Ex: eyewitness testimony • What leads to inaccuracies in recall of important information? o Timing of retrieval o Context ▪ Encoding Specificity Principle ▪ Environmental factors
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