APSY 2032 Lecture 8: Feb 20_Psych of Learning_Perez
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Long-term Memory, Continued.
How is information retrieved from long-term memory?
Retrieval: The Crux of Memory
• Endel Tulving (renowned memory researcher)
• But why would retrieval be more critical of a process than encoding or
o If we were limited to encoding and storing info and could not actually
retrieve that information later, our memories would be useless
• Available v. Accessible Info
o Available All of the info you’ve ever encoded and currently have
stored in LTM
o Accessible the info you can actually remember through some form
of retrieval process
o Simplest form
o Identifying a present stimulus
o More difficult form of retrieval
o Generating an absent stimulus
o Most susceptible to distortion and “leading”
• Cued Recall
o Retrieving information from LTM aided by cues or “hints”
• Free Recall
o Retrieving information from LTM w/o cues
o More difficult than cued recall
What about recalling more complex memories, such as events?
Recall of Complex Memories
o A kind of recall
o Retrieval of complex information
o Specific details typically changed, gist and critical details typically
• What influences how we reconstruct memories?
• Are our memories of critical details of an event always reliable?
o Not always!
o Ex: eyewitness testimony
• What leads to inaccuracies in recall of important information? o Timing of retrieval
▪ Encoding Specificity Principle
▪ Environmental factors