APSY 2032 Lecture 2: January 25_Psych of Learning_Perez

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2032

Wednesday, January 25 1. ... II. Operant Conditioning Continued A. Conditions for Operant Conditioning 1. The consequence (reinforcer or punishment) must always follow the behavior a) Typically, conditioning cannot begin until a behavior has been voluntarily performed, at least in humans 2. The consequence should follow immediately or very soon after…why? a) So that the subject does not get confused about which behavior received the consequence! 3. Is the change in behavior permanent? a) There must be reinforcement schedule! (1) Continuous: every time the behavior occurs, reinforcement occurs (a) Rapid learning but difficult to maintain (2) Intermittent (or Partial): reinforcement timing can vary (a) Slower learning but can last longer (3) A period of continuous followed by intermittent reinforcement is typically ideal! III. Behavioral versus Cognitive Views of Learning A. Behaviorism (“Learns to”) v. Cognitivism (“Learns that”) B. Learning takes place in the mind, not in behavior C. Involves the formation of mental representations of the elements of a task and the discovery of how these elements are related D. Behavior is used to make inferences about mental states but is not of interest in itself IV. Social Cognitive Theory A. Bandura argued that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition were directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. B. Observation → Imitation: Frequent sources for new learning new behaviors 1. Enactive learning: learning from the consequences of one’s own actions 2. Vicarious learning: learning from observing the consequences of others’ actions C. From Imitation to Observational Learning 1. Some acts of imit
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