Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Wednesday, January 25
II. Operant Conditioning Continued
A. Conditions for Operant Conditioning
1. The consequence (reinforcer or punishment) must always follow the
a) Typically, conditioning cannot begin until a behavior has been
voluntarily performed, at least in humans
2. The consequence should follow immediately or very soon after…why?
a) So that the subject does not get confused about which behavior
received the consequence!
3. Is the change in behavior permanent?
a) There must be reinforcement schedule!
(1) Continuous: every time the behavior occurs, reinforcement
(a) Rapid learning but difficult to maintain
(2) Intermittent (or Partial): reinforcement timing can vary
(a) Slower learning but can last longer
(3) A period of continuous followed by intermittent
reinforcement is typically ideal!
III. Behavioral versus Cognitive Views of Learning
A. Behaviorism (“Learns to”) v. Cognitivism (“Learns that”)
B. Learning takes place in the mind, not in behavior
C. Involves the formation of mental representations of the elements of a task and
the discovery of how these elements are related
D. Behavior is used to make inferences about mental states but is not of interest in
IV. Social Cognitive Theory
A. Bandura argued that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition were
directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions,
experiences, and outside media influences.
B. Observation → Imitation: Frequent sources for new learning new behaviors
1. Enactive learning: learning from the consequences of one’s own actions
2. Vicarious learning: learning from observing the consequences of others’
C. From Imitation to Observational Learning
1. Some acts of imit