February 15, 2017
Encoding Strategies for Enhanced Retention
• Visual Imagery Storing information as mental imagery
o What kind of information does this method work best for?
o Works best with concrete information!
o Using this method for abstract concepts is less effective because it’s
harder to come up with mental images for abstract information
• Connecting Emotion to Info Associating information with a positive
o Negative emotions (or emotions associated with uncertainty) may
impede later recall
▪ E.g., Chronic depression & memory
o Emotional enhancement documented in several studies
▪ Research with Alzheimer’s patients
o Emotional context matters Mood-congruence effect
Long-Term Memory: How is information organized?
• Three categories of information stored in LTM:
o Episodic Memories Event-based or autobiographical
o Semantic Memories Facts and general knowledge
o Procedural Memories Task and skill-based
• Evidence suggests that each type of memory is associated with different
regions in the brain
o Brain injuries
• Episodic Memories
o A mental record of your life history