Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Wednesday, April 5, 2017
Self-Regulated Learning Continued
• Strategies to control behavior:
o E.g. self-evaluating your mess assignment for accuracy
• Strategies to control environment:
o E.g. arranging a quiet place to study
• Covert processes
o I.e. metacognitive processes, cognitive strategies (e.g. word
associations to increase memory)
Key Processes Involved in SRL
1. Setting standards and goals – deciding what you want to accomplish/achieve.
Resolving conflicts between goals.
2. Self-observation (monitoring) – assessing whether you are making adequate
progress toward your goal.
3. Self-control – choosing a strategy to accomplish your goal and changing you
strategy if progress is inadequate.
4. Self-evaluation – making evaluative judgments about yourself based on your
success in achieving your goal.
5. Self-reaction – feeling a particular way about yourself based on your self-
6. Self-reflection – critically examining one’s success in achieving one’s goals
and adjusting one’s beliefs and strategies.
Metacognition: A Critical Component of SRL
• Metacognition = knowledge and cognition about cognitive phenomena
o Examples in every day lives
▪ Belief that your working memory capacity is limited
▪ Belief that you remember things better if you visualize them
▪ Judging whether or not you will be able to remember what you
▪ Judging whether you understanding what you just read
▪ Feeling confused or uncertain
Why is metacognition important?
• Effective learning involves knowing what it is you need to learn, as well as
knowing how to learn it
o When studying for an exam, do you ask yourself whether you know a
topic well enough?
o Why would this be important to have an accurate answer to this?
o How do you choose an effective strategy?
Types of Metacognitive Knowledge
Varieties! • Person – what you come to believe about yourself and others as cognitive
o Intra-individual differences – e.g. “I think better when I’ve slept.”
o Inter-individual differences – e.g. “Sarah does better with less sleep
than I do.”
• Cognitive universals – e.g. “Working memory has a limited capacity.”
• Task demands or goals – e.g. “It’s difficult to remember the text verbatim.”
• Strategy – what you believe about cognitive or metacognitive strategies
o Including, which strategies will be effective for a