Autonomy

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Department
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Course
APSY 2041
Professor
Jacqueline Lerner
Semester
Fall

Description
Autonomy 10/01/2013 Emotional Autonomy Gaining emotional independence in relationships with others, especially parents Psychoanalytic Theory:  Anna Freud Physical changes of puberty disrupt family system Resurgence of sexual impulses increase family tensions Detachment: Adolescents are driven to separate emotionally from parents  Conflict is normal part of detachment in adolescence Individuation Theory Process of individuation begins during infancy Does not involve stress or turmoil Acceptance of responsibility for choices and actions Measures Extent to which teens de­idealize parents Extent to which teens see parents as people Extent to which adolescents depend on themselves, rather than on parents Extent to which the adolescent feels individuated within the relationship with his/her parents Triggers Changes in teen’s appearance provoke changes in how teen views self and how parents view teen, altering  parent­adolescent interactions   Social­cognitive development stimulates movement toward individuation Parenting Practices Healthy individuation and positive mental health are fostered by close, not distant, family relationships  Conditions that encourage both individuation and emotional closeness facilitate autonomy Behavioral Autonomy Making independent decisions and following through on them  Development Changes in decision­making abilities More sophisticated abilities in: awareness of risks considering future consequences turning to a consultant recognizing vested interests Adolescent improvement in decision­making likely due to two developments: Decline in the extent to which decisions are influenced by their potential to produce an immediate reward Improvement in adolescents’ ability to control their impulses Adolescents whose parents are authoritarian or permissive are most easily influenced by peers, especially  in antisocial situations Adolescents from authoritative homes are less susceptible to antisocial peer pressure but more so to  positive peers Changes in susceptibility to influence Conformity to peers is higher during early and middle adolescence Parents are more influential regarding long­term issues, basic values Peers’ opinions are more influential for day­to­day matters (music tastes or clothing style) Ethnic and Cultural Differences in Expectations White adolescents and their parents living in America, Australia, or Hong Kong have earlier expectations for  adolescent autonomy than do Asian adolescents from these same countries No sex or birth order differences in expectations but there are sex differences in the extent to which parents  grant autonomy Depends on the constellation of sons and daughters in the household and on the parents’ attitudes toward  sex roles Cognitive Autonomy Developing an independent set of beliefs and princip
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