APSY 2216 Lecture 8: Feb 10_Research Methods and Analyses_Thomson

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2216

ANNOUNCEMENTS ● Next Wednesday, we will discuss reliability and validity. ● Next Friday, we will review for the exam. ● Homework: Read chapters 8-9 and review sheet, complete review questions (by Friday), study for the exam, and come to class with questions INSTRUMENTATION ● Data - information researchers obtain on the subjects of their research ○ Information that could be obtained systematically and that can be reproduced ○ The key to empirical research is the ability to make inferences on the basis of data ● Instrumentation - instruments and procedures used in collecting data ● Instrument - device used to collect data, used to measure constructs of interest, completed by subjects, researchers, or informants ○ Can be used by researchers - rating scales, observation forms, tally sheets, performance checklists, field notes ○ Can be used by subject/informant - questionnaires, self-checklists, attitude scales, personality/character inventories, achievement test (assess knowledge or skill in an area that has been specifically taught), aptitude tests (assess intellectual abilities that are not specifically taught), Likert Scale (1-5) ■ Subject - you are studying 5th graders, and the 5th graders provides you with information ■ Informant - you are studying 5th graders, and the teacher provides you with information ■ Can be modified for when subjects are children but you want their own reports (ex: making questions less wordy and more picture-based) ○ Can be selection or supply items ■ Selection items - true/false, matching, multiple choice, interpretive (better for when you want a distinct response, like in a quantitative study) ■ Supply items - short answer, essay questions (better for when you want more open responses, like in a qualitative study) ○ Attempt for unobtrusive measures ■ Many instruments require the cooperation of the respondent in one way or another ■ An intrusion into ongoing activities could change the respondent’s response → to eliminate this, researchers use unobtrusive measures, data collection procedure that involves minimal intrusion into the naturally occurring course of events ○ Instruments can come from previous literature - time efficient, have information on validity and reliability already, supported by findings in empirical literature ○ Instruments can be researcher developed - time consuming, must establish validity and reliability, must establish empirical support ○ When looking for good instruments that already exist… ■ Review previous literature ■ Search through databases (ERIC, PsycInfo) ○ Guiding questions in selecting an instrument ■ How much does it cost? ■ How easy is it to administer? ■ How long will it take to administer? ■ Are the directions clear? ■ Is it appropriate for the group to whom it is being administered? (consider age, language) ■ Is it easy to score? ■ How are the results interpreted? ■ How does it measure what it is supposed to measure? ■ What type of data do I end up with? ■ Is it reliable/valid? ○ Norm-referenced instruments - provide information about an individual with respect to a group that they are being compared to ■ Ex: IQ test, state standardized test that compares to others in the same grade across the state (MCAS) ○ Criterion-referenced instruments -
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