APSY 2216 Lecture 6: Feb 3_Research Methods and Analyses_Thomson

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2216

STRUCTURES OF RESEARCH PROPOSALS AND REPORTS ● Research proposal - written detailed plan for conducting a research study ○ Helps to clarify what needs to be done in the study ○ Helps to avoid unintentional pitfalls ○ Follows a specific format - put together all the various pieces, helps others follow along and/or replicate your study later ○ Does not include results or discussion ● Sections of research proposal ○ Introduction - explain what study is about, identify research problem, convince reader that study is justified, define key terms, review literature, describe specific research questions, state hypotheses ■ When explaining the research problem: state the problem, cite evidence of the problem, and then transition to significance of the problem ■ After the broad statement of purpose, clearly state specific research questions ○ Proposed method - describe procedures and instruments to be used, convince reader that tools will facilitate answering RQs and will not bias conclusions ■ Research design - descriptive, associational, causal-comparative, etc. ■ Sample (participants) - justify number of subjects and subject characteristics ■ Instrumentation (materials) - justify validity and reliability of instruments ■ Procedure - what will be done with subjects, when, where, and how ○ Proposed analysis - describe how data can be analyzed in a way that is appropriate for answering the RQ ■ How participants’ behavior will be coded (ex: 0 is father absence, 1 is father presence) ■ What comparisons will be explored to answer RQ ■ What statistical tools and methods are appropriate? ○ Significance - discuss applications of findings, address “so what?” ■ Implications for theory, practice, and policy ■ How does your study contribute to overall literature? ● Research reports/empirical articles - reports findings and what they mean DV EXTRANEOUS AND CONTROL VARIABLES IV SES Kindergarten Math ● Extraneous variable - independent variables that are not Achievement controlled for but may influence the outcome of the study, must be addressed in limitations IQ Social Skills Extraneous variables ○ Build them into the design in order to control them ○ In this case, you would test how much IQ impacts math achievement, and then subtract that from how much SES impacts math achievement (this strategy is used especially in associational studies) ○ In experimental, you can eliminate extraneous variables by random assignment to control and treatment groups (match students - 1 low SES in control group, 1 low SES in treatment group) ○ Common extraneous variables: SES, social skills, IQ, parent/home support, urbanicity, family values, family dynamic, reason for X, geographic l
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