APSY 2216 Lecture 11: Feb 24_Research Methods and Analyses_Thomson

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2216

ANNOUNCEMENTS ● Goals of ethics homework assignment that was due today: familiarize you with ethical issues in research and best practices; prepare you to conduct future research ● Next week: deep dive into specific research designs - experimental design and consent forms ETHICS ● What counts as ethical? ○ Conforms to federal/state regulations concerning such research ○ Conforms to standards of conduct put forward by organizations governing conduct of research (APA, BC IRB) ○ Is carried out with respect and concern for dignity and welfare of the people who participate ○ Minimizes physical and psychological harm ● History of ethics ○ Most regulations that we currently have in place were a result of unethical research ○ Nazis exposed prisoners to malaria, mustard gas, sterilizations, etc. → Nuremberg Code ○ Milgram Obedience to Authority Study - subjects were ordered to give electric shocks to other people whom they couldn’t see (people receiving shocks were confederates) → 65% of participants followed orders and administered maximum shock → participants were psychologically harmed ○ Tuskegee syphilis experiments - told poor African American men that they would receive free medical care, food, transportation, etc., but they all had latent syphilis (which the researchers refused to tell them) → treatment for syphilis was discovered during this time, but the researchers withheld it ● Belmont Report of 1979 - written by National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research ○ Respect for participants - individuals should be treated as autonomous agents ■ Must willingly give consent ■ Must be given enough information about study in order to make a knowledgeable decision about whether they want to participate ■ Information must be presented in a way that participants understand it ■ Vulnerable populations (ex: pregnant women, prisoners, children, etc.) may require permission of a third party ■ Challenges in practice: can’t be sure that participants are really understanding risks and benefits; must avoid influencing participants through coercion or excessive compensation ○ Beneficence - based on do no harm principle; maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms ■ Possible harms can be physical (ex: fatigue), social (ex: stigma), psychological (ex: anxiety), legal (ex: disclosure of illegal drug use), or economic (ex: job loss) ■ Also important to protect against future risks (after the study is done) by protecting confidential and private data - locked cabinets, anonymizing names, secure computer ■ Challenges in practice: determining when potential benefits outweigh considerations of risk, remember that compensation is not a benefit of the research ○ Justice - benefits and burdens of research should be distributed fairly among groups ■ Research should not be biased in terms of race, social status, etc. ■ Inclusion of women, minorities, and children in research ■ Ex: research on heart attacks has been primarily on white males → symptoms for males can actually be different than symptoms for women → only studying males endangers women ○ Establishment requirement to have Institutional Review Boards (IRB) - specialized committee that safeguards the rights and welfare of human subjects in accordance with the Belmont Report
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