APSY 2240 Lecture 8: March28_APSY324402_Whitcavitch-Devoy

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2240
Julia Whitcavitch- Devoy

Readings: Chiorazzi (2015) - The last companions: ● Story of Harvard Divinity students who spend time with dying patients ● The human presence is a healing thing ● They are studying spirituality but mostly end up being companions for the dying ● Listening, understanding, and showing you care is most important ○ They might forget the conversation, but they don’t forget that you were there, that you cared, and maybe even if you prayed and cried with them Charles-Edwards (2009) - Empowering people at work in the face of death and bereavement: ● Bereavement in the workplace can be challenging ● It is helpful for the manager (not just HR) to deal with employees during these times ○ He/she must also find the help they need themselves ● As everyone reacts differently, one must be sensitive to what people need ○ Some want to talk, others don’t ○ For some, work is an outlet for normalcy, for others it is difficult Mancini (2009) - Predictors and parameters of resilience to loss: toward an individual differences model: ● Operational definition of resilience as a specific trajectory of psychological outcome ● Contrast between resilience and lack of attachment/sadness ● Flexible adaptation and pragmatic coping as resilience strategies ● Resilient individuals: ○ Demonstrate self enhancing bias ○ Are people with a positive worldview/a priori beliefs ■ Belief in justice and more accepting of death ○ Demonstrate minimal changes in sense of self/identity ○ Demonstrate positive emotions ○ Receive comfort from positive memories Quoidbach (2010) - Money giveth, money taketh away: the dual effect of wealth on happiness: ● This study provides the first evidence that money impairs people’s ability to savor everyday positive emotions and experiences. ● Wealthier individuals reported lower savoring ability (the ability to enhance and prolong positive emotional experience). ○ Participants exposed to a reminder of wealth spent less time savoring a piece of chocolate and exhibited reduced enjoyment of it compared with participants not exposed to wealth. ● The negative impact of wealth on individuals’ ability to savor undermined the positive effects of money on their happiness. ● Having access to the best things in life may actually undercut people’s ability to reap enjoyment from life’s small pleasures. Dunn (2011) - If money doesn't make you happy, then you probably aren't spending it right: ● When asked to take stock of their lives, people with more money report being a good deal more satisfied. ○ But when asked how happy they are at the moment, people with more money are barely different than those with less, suggesting that money provides us with satisfaction when we think about it, but not when we use it ● Eight principles are proposed to help consumers get more happiness for their money. ○ Buy more experiences and fewer material goods ○ Use money to benefit others rather than yourselves ○ Buy many small pleasures rather than fewer large ones ○ Eschew extended warranties and other forms of overpriced insurance ○ Delay consumption ○ Consider how peripheral features of your purchases may affect your day-to-day life ○ Beware of comparison shopping ○ Pay close attention to the happiness of others. Bukodi (2015) - Social mobility - what goes up: ● They found that across all cohorts, about three-quarters of individuals ended up in a different class from the one they were born into, suggesting that, contrary to popular belief, social mobility has not declined. ● From the 1950s to the 80s there was a large expansion in high status employment as education improved and professional services grew ● That growth in professional employment has now slowed, leaving less room at the top ○ Children from affluent families face more of a struggle to replicate their parents’ standard of living ● Downward mobility is on the rise ○ This is not as extreme for women, as they are still working up in the battle for equality with men in the workplace Heintzelman (2014) - Life is pretty meaningful: ● The meaning of life is often portrayed as a paradox: ○ It is a necessity of life and something that is next to impossible to obtain ● Meaning in life is widespread and relatively high - Life is pretty meaningful Cerretani (2011) - The contagion of happiness: ● Happiness is a conscious state of mind ● Joy involves interacting with another ● Happiness has a genetic predisposition ● There is a link between happiness/mental health and physical health ● Happiness is most affected by relationships with others ○ Not money (although money has a small effect up to $75,000 per year income) ○ Not looks (as looks do not affect a cheery disposition, either) ○ It is contagious You’re 95 and you are imagining your legacy - what is it? ● “The Long Lease” ● The love I have shown to my family and my students. I hope I have inspired them to be kind and loving to everyone they meet, to be faithful to their beliefs, and to know they are loved by something bigger than themselves. Chapter 11 - Death Four meanings of death: ● Death as an organization of time ○ Time until death ● Death as punishment ○ Related to religiosity ■ Associated with sin (Hellevator) ● Death as loss ○ Loss of functioning, relationships, time, loved ones, etc. ● Death as a transition ○ To an afterlife or a new life ○ From one body to another body/state of being Death anxiety: ● Fear of death ● Middle aged and moderately-religious people fear it the most ○ Also women ○ Older people have a level of preparation ● People feel like they haven’t been able to things that they wanted/needed to do ● Finitude: preparing yourself for death ○ Creating a will, living will, structured reminiscence, becoming an organ donor, etc. ○ Coming to terms with death Coping with death: ● From all time, people
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