APSY 2240 Lecture 4: February7_APSY324402_Whitcavitch-Devoy

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2240
Julia Whitcavitch- Devoy

February 7, 2017 Chapter 4 Intelligence: ● The ability to think, reason and deal with your environment ● This is rarely accurately measured ○ Especially considering how people deal with their environment ● Emotional intelligence and social intelligence are also difficult to measure ● Visual/spatial and kinesthetic intelligence ● Consider Multiple Intelligence theory ○ 9 types of intelligence ● Big G and little g ● Flynn effect: the average IQ score seem to be increasing steadily over the last century ○ Suggests standardized measure ○ IQ is not as fixed as we may have thought ○ Socialization and toner variables such as nutrition and access to education may have played a role in this increase ● Crystallized intelligence: fixed intelligence ○ Content specific ○ Usually learned in school ○ E.g. Christopher Columbus came to America in 1492 ● Fluid intelligence: considers processing; how well you adapt to new situations ○ Not as dependent on education and content ○ Tends to decline earlier that crystallized intelligence ○ E.g. If you knew how to drive your whole life and then it became gradually more difficult with time and you no longer can do it ■ Reaction and the ability to adapt has weakened ● Intelligence declines slower than we used to think ● Intelligence has a relationship with health and longevity ○ Aligned with economic success and academic success (resources) ○ The ability take care of oneself ○ Ability to manage medication and how often you go to the doctor ● Reversing declines ○ Exercise can play a mediating role in decline Memory: ● Working memory has a tougher time as we age because it is processing ○ Information processing model ○ It becomes harder for us to inhibit stimulus ■ Relates to inability for older people to drive ● Semantic memory declines the slowest ● Episodic memory: the ability to recall events ○ Autobiographical memory ○ Even people in the same memory will remember it differently ○ Women have an advantage in episodic memory Cognition: ● Poor health interferes with thinking and memory ● Declines in vision affects cognition ○ Makes everything more difficult and requires more effort ○ Applies to all senses ● Genes account for 60% of our differences in cognitive ability ○ 40% is dependent on the environment ○ Means there is high potential for intervention ● Adults who read and travel more have slower rates of cognitive decline ○ Adults of higher SES Chapter 5: Social Roles Social Roles: ● Circumstances of age change roles, although the number of roles remains about the same ● Gender roles change over time ○ Gender stereotypes are relatively inflexible about what men and women should do ■ Women are caring, nurturing, emotional, weak ■ Men are strong, breadwinners, don't cry ■ Media perpetuate stereotypes ■ Stereotypes are passed down through generations ■ Evolutionary psychology suggests that there are some evolutionary aspects to gender roles which have been embedded in us through our ancestors ● E.g. Women take care of the children and home, while men protect the household ● This is even evident in animals - lion example ■ Social role theory: you learn what you do ● This is may be unhealthy, as people feel confined and potential is limited ○ Women have to choose between being a mother of having a strong career ○ The average woman's foot size has grown one full size in the past 70 years ■ Result of girls playing sports The emerging adulthood phenomenon: ● Transition is more complex than in the past ○ More things one is responsible for ● Identity formation takes longer ○ Longer period of feeling in between adolescent and adulthood ○ Allows for more freedom to explore ● Returning home is not unusual ● Marital rates are decreasing ○ Cohabitation is increasing ■ Result of decline of stigma ■ Alternative to marriage ○ More people are focusing on careers ○ Less societal pressure to have a family ○ Marital relationship has significant effect on health ■ Mental health and physical health ● Anxiety ● Endocrine and immune system, blood pressure Parenting: ● Significant relationship between marital satisfaction and having children ● Marital satisfaction is like a U - lowest at when you have kids ○ Clashing parenting styles ○ Less time to spend as a couple ○ High stress of taking care of young kids ○ Starts going back up around kindergarten age ● First child causes a retreat to traditionalism ○ Considering gender roles ○ Difficult to navigate emotionally ■ Dependent pressure on breadwinner
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