Cognitive and Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality

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Boston College
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
APSY 2240
Julia Whitcavitch- Devoy

CognitiveAspects Humans search for meaning in their environment Lewin’s Field Theory Temporally specific/focused Field independent people Draw line outside the box or not diagonally Independent May act outside of social norms May favor solitary play as kids Emphasize autonomy over conformity May have trouble with social contact/situations Field dependent people Draw line inside the box and diagonally Stay inside of social norms Schema Theory Schema: structure that you have to classify knowledge and expectations about an environment; add schemas as you age Script: schema for a very familiar event Categorization Organize events, objects and people into categories Helps us understand complex information quickly Helps to make sense of new information Negative connotation: stereotypes Attention With the ability to control attention, we focus of salient environmental information By focusing on this info, this allows us to combine our attention with goals, and allows us to regulate certain aspects George Kelly Everyone constructs their own theory about human behavior Everyone is a scientist because we all think differently Social intelligence Aperson’s ability to act in ways that are socially acceptable Ability to empathize, passion, humor, emotional intelligence and overall emotional knowledge Map onto Gardner because it is interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence Explanatory style Acharacteristic way of interpreting life Optimist or pessimist Learned helplessness Repeated exposure to what feels like an unavoidable punishment leads to the acceptance of the outcome R
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