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Boston College
Earth & Environmental Sciences
EESC 1158
Donald James

Are Pacific salmon more diverse because of a tectonically active landscape? 1. Montgomery Hypothesis 2. Most mountains form where the action is ▯ at plate edges 1. Atlantic salmon: less speciation due to the plethora of tectonic activity occurring on the Pacific side a. Diversity led to increased speciation b. Glaciers▯ disturbance indeed, however, this did not cause speciation c. The level of disturbance on the atlantic is not as severe (floods are biggest disturbance to regularity) i. These ideas comprise the hypothesis. Controls on the salmon abundance: 1. harvest (overfishing) 2. habitat (degradation/ loss) 3. hatcheries (and agrigculture) 4. hydropower (and dams in general) Harvest i. North pacific hasn’t had total crash in salmon abundance (working on coexistence) ii. Salmon fishing is huge component ofAlaskan landscape iii. History: conservation laws first imposed in the 11 century (Scotland and England) iv. In the new world: Native americans as well as colonists fish salmon in rivers as well as streams v. 19 to 20 centuries: fishing moved offshore vi. Particularly to coast of Greenland a. Western Greenland: key feeding grounds forAtlantic salmon and site of the international salmon wars (60s – 90s) vii. North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO) founded in 1983▯ imposes regulations and caps on catches of salmon a. NASCO Issues: i. Management of northAtlantic fisheries ii. Habitat protection and restoration iii. Aquaculture threats to wild salmon iv. Parasite threats toAtlantic salmon v. Social and economic value of salmon vi. Stock rebuilding programs 1. Habitat restoration, hatcheries vii. Research salmon at sea viii. Harvest: Key Lessons a. Historically, overfishing took so long that individual fishermen had no incentive to stop fishing, particularly when demand > supply, increasing prices i. Overfishing is a real fundamental problem▯ especially with international b. Salmon management is not just a technical issue, but a political, regulatory, and international one ix. Tragedy of the Commons: a. The depletion of a shared resource by individuals acting independently and rationally in accordance with each own’s self interests, despite their understanding that depleting the common resource is contrary to the group’s long term best interests. b. i.e., when a group of people are fishing from the same pond in pursuit of maximizing individual profits, however, everyone is proportionally negatively impacted by said pursuit x. Habitat i. Watershed processes and salmon habitat ii. Salmon need: a. Described below is a “Redd” b. Cool, unpolluted water i. DO for embryo development ii. Higher DO needs than other fish c. Gravel bedded rivers
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