Global Biogeochemical Cycles8.docx

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Boston College
Earth & Environmental Sciences
EESC 1158
Donald James

Exam 1 Questions 1. Why are meteorites thought to be representative of the age of the Earth? • According to nebular theory, they are believed to have solidified at the same time as the Earth 2. What are meteorites? Remains of rocky and metallic material that fall to the Earth from interplanetary space 3. Radiometric Dating – Shows the oldest Earth rock is about 3,8 billion years old. Age of the Earth is estimated to be around 4.56 billion years old. How did we get that number? - Age of the Earth is estimated by radiometric dating of meteorites. Due to the rock cycle, the earliest Earth’s rock have been recycled. 4. All planets have a magnetic field? – FALSE 5. What was Kepler’s role in the development of our knowledge of the solar system? How did Galileo and Newton expand upon his feelings? - Kepler forumatled the 3 laws of planetary motion: Laws are empirical, they correctly describe what Kepler observed but they don’t tell us why - Wasn’t able to explain the forces which drove this phenomena - Galileo (Inertia) and Newton (laws of motion and law of universal gravitation) provided a theoretical explanation of these phenomena 6. What is the half life of an isotope? - Time required for half of the nuclei in the sample to decay. Measures the rate of decay 7. Ptolemy’s geocentric model to account for the retrograde motion of the planets consisted of what two concepts? - Epicycles and Deferents 8. TRUE: Most planets have a very low “eccentricity” 9. What is Kepler’s first law? – Path of planets is elliptical in shape with the center of the sun being the focus 10. What is the difference between the Celestial Sphere and the Ptolematic System? - Celestial sphere- starts are attached and travel around the Earth daily - Ptolematic system – each planet orbits on a small circle (epicycle) and revolves on a large circle (deferent) around the Earth 11. Motion of Planets = Retrograde Motion; generally planets move eastword against background of the stars…But occasionally they stop and reverse direction and then resume eastward 12. Heliocentric Solar System? – Copernicus = simple explanation for the apparent retrograde motion of the planets but requires that the Earth be moving 13. Why doesn’t it feel like we are moving even if the Earth is in constant motion? - Because of sense of motion - Changes in velocity – we are not changing velocities so it doesn’t feel like we are moving…that’s why we don’t fall off of the Earth 14. Nicholas Copernicus believed… - Earth is a planet just like the other 5 known - Daily motion of the heavens can be explained by a rotating Earth - Sun is at the center of the Solar System and planet’s orbit the Sun 15. Lithosphere – Portion of mantle that is cool, rigid outer-shell that contains the entire crust and upper most part of the mantle 16. Ptolemy’s geocentric model accounts for Retrograde Mtion - Epicycle (small circle) revolving around a deferent (big circle) 17. 2 Principle divisions of Earth’s Surface; Ocean Basic, Continents 18. What are the largest features of the continents? – Mountain belts 19. Parallax = motion of the earth around the sun, resulting in a shift in the position of the stars 20. Which of the following is NOT one of the 7 wandering objects early Greeks discovered? - Asteroid Belt 21. What are the “guest stars”? - Stars that temporarily appear in a place which has never before been occupied by a star 22. What is the difference between a natural hazard vs the risk associated with the natural hazard? - Natural hazard is the potential for a harmful natural event to occur - Risk – the potential for harmful effects on people and/or property to occur due to exposure to the hazard 23. Plate tectonics time scale – millions of years, Anthropocene scale – past few hundred years 24. What heavily impacted the destruction of the Pakistan earthquake? – Collapse of buildings, inadequate structures 25. What percent of fatalities were a direct or indirect result of landslides triggered by the earthquake? – 30% 26. Chinese earthquake – poor pre-warning of earthquake, inadequate structures 27. Dams – heightens Earthquake risk because it reallocates total stress through direct loading of water on, around, the fault line – results in movement = induced seismicity 28. Stellar Parallax – shift of stars, used today to measure distance of stars 29. What planet did Kepler concentrate on when he started to develop his new model of the position of the planets? = Mars 30. Aristarchus – Greek astronomer suggested heliocentric system in 3 centuryrd BC 31. Copernicus – unable to accurately predict planetary motions because he used circular orbits…later changed to epicycles to improve accuracy of model 32. Galileo – exonerated by the church in 1992 33. Kepler first Law = Planets orbit around the SUN (at one focus) – is an ellipse NOT a circle 34. Galileo supported the Heliocentric Solar System 35. Galileo studies the behavior of moving objects – specifically the rate that they fall to the ground - ex. Top of Leaning tower of Pisa, dropping two objects to the ground 36. Church rejected Copernicus’ heliocentric system – says it goes against what the bible said, that people are the focus and ‘center of the world’ 37. Galileo discovered that there are 4 moons orbiting Jupiter 38. What planet h
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