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Boston College (3,526)
EESC 1158 (27)
Lecture

Global Biogeochemical Cycles11.docx

5 Pages
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School
Boston College
Department
Earth & Environmental Sciences
Course
EESC 1158
Professor
Donald James
Semester
Fall

Description
Climate Modeling Computer modeling in scientific research Natural forcing (solar variations, volcanic activity) Anthropogenic Forcing (greenhouse gases,sulfate aerosols) Both Natural and Anthropogenic Gravity and Falling objects All falling objects accelerate at the same rate On Earth, the acceleration due to gravity is about 10m/sec G = 9.8 (m/sec)/sec Global Warming and Climate Change II Earth’s Atmosphere Air is mixture of many different gases and solid particles; not a constant composition If water vapor, dust, and other variable components were removed from atmosphere: The remaining clear, dry air is quite similar anywhere on Earth Composition of clean, dry air Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Argon .93% CO .04% Atmosphere begins at Earth’s land-sea surface and extends upward How does “Atmospheric Pressure” change with altitude? Atmospheric Pressue: Weight of the air ABOVE a given surface Since we live at the bottom of a layer of air…we are subject to the weight of all the air above us Higher we go – less air there is above us Atmospheric pressure DECREASES with altitude Altitude of 5.6km – pressure is about HALF of its value at sea-level There is no definite boundary where the atmosphere ends and outer-space begins Temperature of Earth’s Atmosphere: ­ As atmospheric pressure decreases steadily with increasing height..the temperature… o Decreases  Increases  Decreases  Increases Atmosphere is divided into FOUR layers on basis of temperature: Troposphere Temp decreases with height All “weather” occurs here Stratosphere Temp remains constant up to 20km, then increases until top (50km) Mesosphere Temp decreases until top (80km) Thermosphere Temp increases Levels off at 600 km at 1000 C In order to understand global warming and the greenhouse effect…it is necessary t understand the nature and properties of LIGHT and ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Global Warming and Climate Change III Light and Electromagnetic Radiation: Light – Isaac Newton (1600s) experimented with passing white light through glass prism Result: White light is broken up into colours of rainbow Newton’s Theory A beam of light is composed of millions of tiny particles Christian Huygens – Proposed that light could be interpreted as a wave Newton’s prestige was so strong that Huygens’ model was ignored by most physicists However, numerous experiments in 1700s showed that light exhibits many phenomena associated with waves Thomas Young’s Experiment (1789) If a beam of light is passed through 2 side by side slits, the emerging beams interfere with each other and result is.. Constructive and destruct
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