HIST1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Class Consciousness, Decembrist Revolt, Factory Acts

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27 Mar 2016
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1848 02/16/2016
Lec. 9 Outline: 1848
Jan 12, 1848: first revolution occurs
First of 50 revolutions in the 4 months of 1848
By April, no ruler was safe
All the revolutions shared the same fate: failure
Recap: Restoration and Revolt, 1815-1848
Political Liberty and Economic (In)Equality
1820s (failures): Spain, Russia, Italian Lands
1830s (small successes): Greek Independence, France: more liberal king,
Belgian Independence
Two Ideals Emerging from the French Revoution:
oLiberte (Liberty)
oFraternite/Egalite (Society, Equality)
oClarification: two kinds of liberalism
Political (Stuart Mill, trying to get rid of the old aristocratic order)
Economic (more associated with Britain, laissez-faire)
What Makes a Revolution? (Long-term vs. Short-term)
Long-term
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oThe “isms” coming together
Short-term
oComes down to economic disparities and downturns
oCycle of bad things
oOverproduction of goods because high food prices
Too many workers = lay offs and rising unemployment
Immediate Precursors to 1848: Economic Crisis
The Great Famine (Potato Blight) In Ireland - 1840s
Contradictions of Classical Liberalism?
Overwhelmingly agricultural and poor
Depended on the potatoe, leading to population growth
Mold from South America destroyed the crop
1 in 8 Irish died and many left the country
Why did this happen? Export of grain wasn’t stopped by England
You don’t want to stop industrial growth
Grain was brought to poor people as charity
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