ENVIRONMENT & DISEASE
- Human’s homeostasis has been human’s conscious concern.
- Human’s manmade problem has also been a concern. Example’s would be CO2
emission (global warming).
- History of human thought of the environment.
- Climate change has been a recent modern phenomenon.
- History: Dam breakage in Canada caused trillions and trillions of water from the north to
the atlantic ocean. It changed the gulf stream and a flower, Dryas Octopala, which lived
in cold atmospheres, were found all over the north.
1. The Concept:
2. The Biological Old Regime: When the old regime depended on solar energy.
population: low on food production resulted in a low population. From 1300-1500,
population barely grew. Agriculture basically determined population. There were cities
but they were small.
agriculture: the amount of food they could produce was very low. Most communities
could produce very little or no surplus. They would usually consume everything. Horses
were valuable and a status. Farmers didn’t use horses because it was expensive and
horses eat a lot. Farmers then had a hard time getting access to manure for soil.it took 8
europeans for feed 10 people. 80% of people were farmers/peasants. Those who did
farming didn’t make a lot of money.
social structure: most people were peasants, then middle classes: clergy, church
powers, soldiers, then high class. This therefore showed social inequality.
3. Captialism?: 4. Energy:
6. The Black Death: Disease that struck Europe towards the end of the period.
- 1500 was referred to as the Dark Ages for Europe: When the Roman Empire fell to the
barbarians (reckless people; descendent of the Europeans.)
- They lost cultures of the Roman Empire
- The Christian church was the only way of unifying the European world.
- The Middle Ages therefore was a time of Christian corruption because they had so much
- A renaissance happened to reborn the European world.
- Observations of Europe:
- The limiting factor of nature in Europe was B.O.R that caused a time of slow economy.
(look at vocab)
- Compared to other parts of earth, Europe was a very marginal, fragmented, and chaotic
place. This was their biggest assets; might’ve helped them somehow.
- Although there was a slow economy, productivity was improving.
- The end of this period was a disaster from a certain disease: Bubonic Plague. If you get
it, it was pretty much the end back then. Oriental rat flea (originated from china) also
struck the population. 1/3 of the population died of the diseases. In some places, 80% of
the population died from the 4 year period.
1. Niccolo Machiavelli:
2. Giotto: Father of the Renaissance artist. Attempts to draw real people.
3. Fra’ Filippo Lippi: His art was groundbreaking because he represented a non-religious
focus to regular human beings. He was paid to paint people.
4. Donatello: Sculpted a statue (of the first) of David. 5. Leonardo da Vinci: Painter; born in 1452. Interest in science and anatomy. Was able to
dissect the human body for education.
7. Botticelli: Another painter. Drew classical paintings of people.
- The black plague was a long-term crisis.
- During this time, there was also a little ice age.
- Citizens did not understand why God would cause all these crisis to human beings.
They then just turn to physical protection.
- For post-plague survivors, most people experienced this as a positive thing:
o After 4 years of the plague, one of the first things that have happened is that
much land is abandoned.
o Population has dropped so there are less mouths to feed
o These abandoned lands will be implantable, grass will grow, and livestock/horses
will be raised.
o Because of this, protein, dairy, and meat will be plentiful. Peasants (80% pop. of
Europe) will improve, and some dramatically, financially.
- Aristocracy and the higher class will not be satisfied with peasants improving financially.
Their peasants who make wheat as product for the higher class was not making as
much wheat and that the price of wheat declined because of low population.
- Tax revenue to the higher class was dropping significantly because of the low
- Peasants who prosper changed in attire. They began to wear more fancy outfits (buckle
on shoes, real shoes, etc…)
- Because of such low population and improvements of peasants, more strict rules were
imposed on them.
- The peasants revolted but were crushed by the royal army.
- The Renaissance was a logical evolution of the Medieval World.
- The Renaissance was a time to which people were beginning to just understand their
place in the world. A rethinking of cultural, intellectual and social endeavors. - The medieval times was when people found of about the Earth’s shape, the creations of
- Art also changed (vocab).
- Giotto: Adoration of the Magi – put Haley’s comet in his painting because he was
fascinated by it.
- Fra’ Filippo Lippi (vocab)
- The human body was fascinating in the Medieval Age. Donatello’s statue of David was
one the first naked statues created.
- Botticelli (vocab)
- Leonardo da Vinci (vocab)
Eyes to China
1. Euro-Centrism-Exceptionalism: the world is transformed by Europeans partly from their
technological, economic, intellectual, and military.
2. Emperor Wen: Responsible for the Great Canal that connected interior of china. This
allowed cheap transport of heavy supplies (food).
3. Zheng Wen:
4. Zheng He: sailing a fleet to many important places economically. Brought back gifts to
the Chinese emperor.
5. St. Brendan and Hy-Brasil:
6. Marco Polo:
7. Venice and Genoa:
- (first vocab) this is the reason why Europeans sailed and found the other parts of the
world. Finding cotton, coffee, other such we called the New World. This would lead to
the industrial revolution.
- Robert Marks says that there isn’t anything exceptional about Europe; they were not
dominant. He says that much that are changing and happening is in China. He though says that it is the expansion of Europeans that we get cotton, coffee, and other industrial
- China had more wealth. Mostly from patty fields. The largest city was located in China.
- China alone had 25% of the world’s population when France was just 1/8 of what china
had in the 1400s.
- China was a unified govt.: one govt over all china.
- (emperor wen)
- (zheng he)
- 1400s the Chinese emperor had to continue building the Great Wall of China to keep out
the Mongolians. This is why the emperor shifted his military economy to inland building
of the Great Wall. (Would China have discovered America before Christopher
- China had a Silk Road and Spice Routes to Java.
- China was considered a one way trade. Everything from China came out to Europe.
Europe didn’t have anything China needed. China basically had everything. Europe had
timber but it was too bulky to ship.
- One of the most important trades was pepper. It came from Asia and Europeans can
only get pepper from Asia; so was porcelain boxes and Chinese silk.
- ^ all these were consumer deals. It was not essential for survival. But these things were
in high demand for Europeans. Why? Comsuming things were an exceptionally
important thing in the 1400s.
The Real Atlantic Worlds Notes 9/20/12
Disease in the America’s
- European advantages (cont.): Disease: most catastrophic plague scenario in history.
o The Columbus Exchange (search it up)
o Before the Columbus’s time, Europeans did not venture out to other regions.
o America’s were not familiar with European disease.
o Because of this Americans were homogeneous (pretty much similar immunity)
o Influenza, measles, and especially small pox killed many Americans/Indians.
o First encounter s of the disease was 1518 when Columbus met the Indians.
o 3-4 years after Columbus’s arrival, Tiquano (Indians land) population dropped to
zero because of the disease.
o Aztec Empire: sickness struck them even before the Spaniards came. Emperor
fell from the disease.
o Inca Empire: *coming of strangers from sea* the emperor who said that died from
small pox along with 200k other Incans. Stress in economy, etc. within a few
years, about 5 million Incans died from small pox.
o 1550’s disease spreads through the middle section of America killing millions of
o Squanto (indian): 1614, found Englishmen who took Indians as slaves. He was
one of the victims. He was sold as a slave in Spain. Although this would be the
end of these Indians, Squanto was lucky enough to be bought by priests to teach
him how to learn Spanish/English and be converted. He wanted to go back to his
home village (boston). He ended up being able to go on an expedition to New
Finland. He was able to flee to his village. What he saw was not how he had
seen it before. It was entirely empty. It had only been 5 years since he was taken
away. The reason for change is because of Hepatitis.
o Summary: where ever Spaniards went on the eastern side, Indians were affected
by their disease.
o * estimate of 112 million (what used to be 8.4mill) people survived in the
o * 94% Indians died from the disease.
o Invisible allies
- Wayne Qhapaq
- Tisquantum (Squanto)
Assessing the Evidence
- “The Numbers Game”
- Alfred Kroeber
- Henry Dobyns
- Hernando de Soto 9/25/12
The Atlantic Renaissance
What was the Renaissance?
- Dante Alighieri
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Humanism: a return to the source; goes hand in hand with renaissance.
- Johann Gutenberg: invented the printing press.
The Renaissance and Discovery
- Jose de Acosta (Natural and moral history of the Indies): proved that old beliefs were
wrong.an example would be aristotle’s theory of the ‘burning equator’
- Michel de Montaigne (“On Cannibals”): French humanist scholar.
- Jan Mostaert:
- Andre Thevet: Painted Michel de Montaige’s visual on cannibals.
- Jacques Lemoyne de Morgues:
- John White: English artist. Early depictions of how America really looks. Fairly civilized
paintings of towns.
- Theodore de Bry: white painter.
Notes: - How Europeans religious life had huge effects overseas
- Renaissance: rebirth of classical (traditional) learning.
- People who a taught classical learning used humanism.
- Humanist, from Greek and Hebrew scriptures, created the first vernacular bible.
- Most modern paintings are influenced by the renaissance.
- After Johann’s invention, information spread throughout the nation.
- Map making, increased navigation from the help of printing press. Johann can be
considered as a humanist.
- Vita active: to go and conquer the world (glory)
- (^jose) by this time, old beliefs were disregarded.
- Civility in painting was determined through their attire.
- (visual representations) basically showed how Europeans saw the world and how this
would affect things.
The Atlantic Reformation
The European Reformation
- Martin Luther: theologian. Had doubts about the Catholic Church and established
Lutheran churches. By then, there were Protestants and Catholics in Europe.
- 1Sola fide, Sola gratia, sola scriptura: getting into heaven not through good deed
but having faith in god. Given by god. All of gods truth is revealed in scriptures. These
three things were introduced by Luther.
- Antichrist: servant of devil who takes on the image of holiness. Luther introduced this
and essentially called the pope an antichrist.
- Magisterial Reformation
- Peasants’ Revolt (1525): peasants revolted against their landlords and used Luther’s
beliefs to defend themselves.
- Council of Trent (1545-63): j Catholic Militancy in the New World
- Papal Donation (1493): j
- Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): J
- Charles V: k
- Society of Jesus
- Gaspard de Coligny: Protestant of France. Thought that France could have protestant
and catholic believers.
- Marie de Medicis
- Jean Ribault: found a colony above south America. Left his followers for help.
Followers could wait so they built a boat to go back to france. Failed; died.
- Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere
- Charlesfort/La Caroline
- Pedro Menendez de Aviles: sent to kick the French out. Was a committed catholic;
hated Lutherist. Went to French town, killed ppl burned fort, sent women and children
back to Spain. Soon French was too scared to go against the Spanish. Civil war started.
- St. Augustine:
- St. Bartholomew’s Day (23 August 1572)
- (Martin Luther)
- Great reformation – because of the lost of catholics due to protestants, catholics looked
to convert people in America.
- Indulgence- ordinary ppl could pay so pope/priest could tap in treasury of merit. By
doing that, you could speed up time in purgatory and head to heaven. Was introduced
after a church could not be funded. - Luther did not approve of this idea of indulgence; saw it as the church messing with
people’s insecurities of their afterlife and trying to get some money for the church. He
tried to protest.
- (sole fide,…)^
- Babylonian captivity of the church:
- Luther found political supporters. Traveled and converted. (Many before, especially
princes, did not like the fact that the pope had power over them.)
- Over next few decades, European citizens usually followed whatever religion their rulers
- (Peasant’s revolt)^ Luther would then tell them that this is not the way to go.
- After the event, the Catholic church would say ‘who knows what would happen if you
follow something other than your superior(Catholicism). Ppl will create high egos’
- Pope donated the lands of America to the Spanish.
- Spain and Portuguese compromise, Spanish took over all America
- ^ The point of that is that Catholics would gain all this land and not Protestants.
- In the beginning, Indians were converted to Christianity.
- Because Spanish found wealth in America, Protestants found this as a way to bring their
religion to America by cutting off American funds.
- In France, Kings and royal family stayed catholic but the lower classes converts to
- Peasants were scared that the crown would punish the Protestants.
- (Gaspard de Coligny) ^
- (Pedro Menendez de Aviles) ^ 10/02/12
Indian Labor and Global Trade
Precious Metals and Spanish America
- Encomienda system: Cortez and soldiers had the right to collect tributes from Indians.
Would always collect the tribute in labor. Indians could not refuse. Mine hotspots were
not where encomienda’s took place so they ended up using Indians as slaves and
forcing them to work.
Mining in the Andes
- Viceroyalty of Peru:
- Quechua Indians (Inca):
Following the Silver
- Treasure Fleet:
- Piet Heyn:
- Casa de Contratacion (Seville):
- Quinto royal (royal fifth):
Bullion and the World Economy
- Price Revolution:
NOTES: Indian Labor and Global Trade - Without labor, there would be no wealth for Americans.
- Natives were a source for collecting parts for American products.
- Despite the low population of Indians, their labor changed the global economy;
especially in South America.
- Mountain in Bolivia: had precious metals. Spread throughout the globe. Without labor, it
would not have been possible.
o Encountering Indians with gold sparked their interest in finding metals.
o Metals only made some rich but it sparked them to spread and find more
o Finding labor in major gold spots like Mexico was very difficult.
o (Encomienda system) ^
o Slaves died quickly, didn’t work as efficiently. This was a problem
o South America: Here, Inca’s were already miners. Inca’s founded proficient
ways of getting around tough geological areas to get the metals. They did not
o Peru (Incan Empire): known for a special mountain in Potosi with an oversupply
of silver. These silvers rooted from the ground so they knew there was a lot
beneath the surface. This could be the biggest hotspot. They didn’t know how to
get it down from the mountain and ship it to Spain. Spanish ways were just not
technological enough. They knew they could use the Incan’s ways of mining the
mountain. They ended up using their ideas.
o In Potosi, by 1571, 40,000+ in population. 1600, 3k Spanish 40 non-spanisih
35k trios (born in America – half Spanish half indian) 65k Indians 6k Africans.
o Potosi: Indians performed most of the labor.
o At this time, each town in the Incan empire required tributes to the emperor.
These tributes were usually only to finish projects that helped the empire.
o Spanish took this practice and used it on the Indians in a less meaningful way;
used them for mining.
o With mining came with disease.
- What were the effects of Mass Silver transport? o First Potosi silver shipping was transported by sea. Went around, passed by
Panama (had to unload because of swamps), once passed that, it was brought
over to another ship, then, you had to watch out for weather, pirates,
o Created a treasure fleet to solve the problem: gather them one year and send
them all at one time with the Spanish Navy to escort them. The point was to
protect it from pirates.
o When shipped, 1/5 of the mineral was given to the emperor.
o What happens the rest of the silver? It flowed out of Spain quick. Amsterdam,
north Europe, etc… manufactures had a portion. It went to China in return for
Asian trade goods. 2/3 of silvers ended up in China.
o The world depended on these silvers. Silvers determined how wealthy banks
o Silvers caused a PRICE REVOLUTION: things become more expensive. Silver
caused a change in art: artists started using silver in their pieces. Silver changed
The Beginning of African Slavery
- “plantation complex”: large scale farm sugar tobacco coffee rice indigo shipped off to
Slavery before the Atlantic
- Justinian’s Code:
- Serfdom: another form of “slavery”. Worked in large European forms. Owners did not
have all power on the worker. Could not sell off the worker. They workers had rights.
They could claim certain things from their master: had to pay tributes but can live their
day to day life. The Early Slave Trade
- Trans-Saharan Slave Trade:
The First American Slaves
- Indian slavery:
- Curse of Ham:
- Estebanico: well known intellectual slave. Given to the state. Was killed because of
- Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca:
- Marcos de Niza:
- Slavery was not created in the Atlantic world. Slavery was as old as human history itself,
in various contexts.
- Society was divided into two: Laboring order and order of nobility that did not do any
work at all.
- If born on the lower scale, had to work. But was provided protection in response to the
- Europe and slave society. Slave owners had the right to take his/her slave’s life. He/she
also had the rights to whatever the slaves produced.
- Most common form of slavery: captivity after defeat; sold into slavery.
- As serfdom was established, slavery in Europe was on the edge; there were not many
slaves in Europe.
- By the time people crossed the atlantic, serfdom declined. Black Death also happened:
killed off half of the population. Labor had to be completely reorganized. Because most
of the workers died, it was hard to find other workers and to hire someone is a lto more
- 1500’s there were no serfdom in Europe anymore.
- Back in the 1300’s Spain’s usage of slavery increased as more sugar plantations
formed. - When captive and sold as slaves, it would on last a lifetime. Their kids would not be
treated as slaves because they have not done anything wrong.
- At this time, slavery was not recognized by race.
- In Africa, wealth was determined by the number of people you have, not the amount of
land you own. When captured from war, captives would be taken in and used as slaves.
They would reproduce -> more people -> more wealth.
- Now as Columbus ventured off, slave routes shifted from Africa to the Americas.
THE END OF SPANISH DOMINANCE. Spanish Hegemony and Challengers
- United Provinces of the Netherlands/Dutch Republic:
- Kingdom of England
Rise of the Dutch Republic
- Margaret or Parma
- William of Orange vs. The Duke of Alva
- States General & Stadholder
- Religious Tolerance
The Dutch Overseas
- Dutch West India Company
- New Netherland
- Dutch Brazil/New Holland
- Empire of Trade
Rise of the Kingdom of England
- Queen Elizabeth
- The Spanish Armada
The English Overseas
- Exploration of Privateering
- Letters of Reprisal/Letters of Marque
- Sir Francis Drake/Sir Walter Raleigh
- John Watts
- Roanoke Island/Virginia
- Spain was the only durable people in the Atlantic world. Eventually, Spain took over all
empires in there.
- Later on [16 century?], other nations will challenge Spain in the new period: o First was the low northern Netherlands dominates by canals. Dutch city states
have been part of the Spanish nation in Europe. They revolted at some point.
Belgium (Netherland) was under Spanish control but was not under Spain.
Responsible for banking industry. Spanish heavily depended on their banks.
Netherlands did not like their religious and political approaches. 1550’s,
Netherlands were cut from their cultural things: religion. This was economic and
political. This conflict came to rebellion. People were sent to restore order in the
Netherlands. Eventually, Netherlands gain independence. This separation turned
Netherlands and Spain into enemies. (….) they ruined Spanish lands, ships,
etc… Journey of The Englishman: discovery of the Hudson River. Land was
called the ‘New Netherland’ later keyed New York. Most of history, people who
lived there were not really Dutch’s; it was whoever lived there? Netherlands were
known for their Caribbean colonies: one of many popular was Curacao: was set
up as free port. Allowed anyone to use it: Shipholders, pirates, treasure hunters;
they came from every nationality. Dutch brazil: Dutch took over the majority of
sugar trade. New Holland was more than just economic. It was an attempt to
export Dutch republic to the new world. It was to bring about native’s interest in
Dutch government. 1680, most of trade in European kingdom was conducted by
Dutch’s. Basically, Dutch had a big impact of trade in Atlantic World.
o England. Small size but started to plant cities in outer parts of Americas. Had a
lot in common with Netherlands; there were often frequent allies among them to
go against Spain. Although buddies, they were far more humble than the
Netherlands. Empire tried to stray away from the Catholic religion to go into
Protestantism. Kings after kings after queens (Bloody Mary) after queens
(Elizabeth). Elizabeth was first to press on the New World (America). 1560-1580,
(1588) Spanish Armada – 130 ships carrying 35k soldiers. With help of the
Dutch, England prevented Spain of defending themselves? This was one of
England’s greatest victories. England depended on private money? It was
allowed Spanish privateers to attack European merchant ships. Merchants
complained and Elizabeth allowed England to do the same and keep their
Spanish goods. John Watts: came to England as a teenager. Went into
business as a merchant overseas. Overtime, his family lost goods from Spanish
stealing them. John watts looked for revenge and succeeded (stole a lot from
Spanish merchants?). Became very rich. Was very well known after that.
Virginia: conflicts conflicts…English eventually returned to Virginia. People
moved to this colony. 10/16/12
THE PLANTATION REVOLUTION
The Rise of Sugar
- Sao Tome
- Canary Island
Sugar in the New World
- Pedro Alvares Cabral: expedition and ended up hitting brazil.
- Salvador de Bahia:
- Engenho (senhor de engenho): AKA factories. Entire communities. Several hundred ppl
living together. Many ppl living there were laborers and refiners; highly skilled in turning
sugar canes into pure suger. There were smaller farms that grew sugar and food to feed
- Barbados: one of the main sugar plantations.
- Henry Whistler:
Sugar and Slavery
- Slave naming: slaves were not able to keep their names. They gave slaves names.
- Slave codes: a law for slaves to keep them working. NOTES: THE PLANTATION REVOLUTION
- Sugar became essential to people. Before, sugar was a luxury good. It was worth more
- Wheat land turned into sugar cash crops. Slaves were high in demand.
- One major goal was to import luxury goods into European market; one of which was
sugar. Others were tobacco, cocoa, etc...
- Threats were put on slaves to keep working. While this was enforced, racial slavery also
came about. Blacks were slaves and whites were the owners.
- Tropical plants, sugar cane (sugar), were grown in India. Only when grown in the
Mediterranean did Europeans start eating this.
- During the primitive starts of European sugar growing, sugar was used for medicine and
- There were three things needed to grow sugar:
o Mild weather
o Squeezing cane and refining it.
o Unskilled labour to cut down sugar cane and refine it
- During this time, the demand for sugar was increasing (still luxury).
o It’s first use was for spice:
o It made old meat longer lasting with the spices
o Decoration: people made sculptures to decorate their homes
- At this time, this was only accessible for people of wealth.
- Later on, everyone had sugar.
- People could have done without sugar but because everyone wanted more and more of
it, it changed the world as a whole, especially the New World.
- Pedro Alvares Cabral^
- Brazil: o This place was usually considered a waste station and had wood for dye. British
at this time tried to take over Brazil. Brazil now has changed their production
from wood to sugar. It was a natural switch. They were centers of sugar
production. It was relatively easy to get slaves to Brazil because it was
geographically ideal. 1600, brazil became a full blown sugar plantation.
o Engenho (senhor de engenho)^
- It was not easy to create a sugar plantation. You needed a lot of money to get started.
You need investors to take out a loan. Often, these investors were Dutch (Amsterdam).
- Dutch, being investors, had control over Brazil. Eventually, Brazil would kick out the
- Dutch, being well experienced, took their sugar knowledge to French: soon Barbados
was a main sugar production hotspot.
o Barbados had a good spot because…
Their land was flat
- English found Barbados, wanted to produce a cash crop. Was tobacco company until
1640. Barbados turned to sugar and African slavery. 1645, 40% were sugar plants.
Turned out to be an important sugar production hotspot to Europe.
- Barbados, although a successful place, was not really a community. Had taverns for
entertainment but didn’t really have a religious establishment.
- Ireland and others were where food was produced for slaves in Barbados.
- How did sugar change Africa?
o Continued to use Indian slaves.
o They knew portguese plantation worked well with slave. Other places as well.
o Africans died on large population in plantations.
o Dutch slave traders were able to sell off slaves at a reasonable price.
o Slaves as well as their offspring were slaves fORRR life.
o Brazilian slavery was awful. Treatment was bad. Some slaves were able to
defend themselves and gained freedom. Most slaves in brazil and others had a
big influence in the catholic religion.
o Barbados, slavery was held by terror; force or threat of force. Barbados by 1650,
the majority of barabians were black. Such a system could be uplifted by force. Planters could kill punish slaves because they were the owner’s property. Slaves
did not have any rights during trials.
o In Caribbean society, Africans were permanent underclassmen, they were
thought to never be able to rise to the top, or even rise at all.
o Family lives of Africans could be broken up at any time. Were not allowed to
keep their African names.
o There were a set of SLAVE CODES to keep them working.
o There was a naval for slavery to keep them from rebelling.
o Moral of the story: consumer choice could have a big impact on the world.
EXAM 2 below:
STATES AND EMPIRE
The Process of State Formation
- “Overmighty subjects”
- Political culture
Absolute Moarchy: The Case of France
- Louis XIV: ruled france for over 70 years. Built the most centralize state. Was the most
powerful king during the time. During the time, the kingdom was separated into group.
Ppl wanted to gain more power than the royal family. It was eventually broken up. This
just showed how hard it wa to govern france. There were many languages. Different
political traditions, ppl thought of themselves as French. 1661, Louis took control of the
kingdom and established his own power, made theory : royal absolutism: he said that the
old theory , a king was chosen by a god, could not be questioned by anybody. Louis
wanted to replace the dukes, ppl who were in charge of france, with his guys. His guys
were in the circle of the king and was supposed to influence ppl the Kings way. [we will
lower taxes but you have to listen to the king and do what he says]. [l’etat c’est moi and
- The Fronde
- Intendants - L’etat, c’est moi: Louis’ model that all power comes from him. Louis’ fashion and building
showed how power he was.
- Versailles: a place where Louis projected his GREAT POWER.
- Scrofula (king’s evil): if a king touched you, you would be healed of the disease Scrofula.
Louis did this more often. This was the idea that the king was touched by god.
- Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685): Louis used religion to show his power. After
1598, there were enables of Protestant teachings. Louis did not want this, he wanted
everyone to be Catholics. He thought that Protestant teachings would change ppl’s mind
of his ruling. 1685, he went to work and tried to get these Protestants to convert to
Limited Monarchy: The Case of England
- James I
- “Monarchical republic”: Powerful monarch but a another monarch that actually did the
- Charles I: wanted to rule without parliament. This worked fine until he needed money for
war so now he had to talk to the parliament. He ask them and they refused. Parliament
formed an army and fought with Charles. Civil war. Charles died, got his head cut off. In
conclusion, he created treason against himself. It was a big deal that a king was killed in
- Commonwealth and Protectorate
- Charles II: build a beauocracy similar to france. Led to a second revolution
- James II: was brought down from the throne.
- William III: came into the throne.
- Glorious Revolution
From States to Empires
- Composite Monarchy
- Imperium - Mercantilism
The Practice of Empire
- New Hampshire
- Edward Cranfield
- Thomas Thurton
NOTES: STATES AND EMPIRES
- Political history studied the most elite people; examples: Cortes, legislatures.
- Kings were important but only important because they had the emotional pull on citizens.
- How were kings able to convince their citizens, allowing them to rule?
- 1500’s European places, kings acquired greater power, created beaucracy more tax and
- States needed money to fight wars. Almost everything a king did in central government
was to fight wars.
- State formation was a cultural process as much a political process. Ruler had to
convince citizens to adapt to huge changes in society. Examples would be high taxes,
having to be governed by certain people.
- LOUIS XIV
- L’ETAT C’EST MOI
- Louis used religion to show his power. After 1598, there were enables of Protestant
teachings. Louis did not want this, he wanted everyone to be Catholics. He thought that
Protestant teachings would change ppl’s mind of his ruling. 1685, he went to work and
tried to get these Protestants to convert to Catholicism.
o Also used the theory of absolutism
o Slightly diff in creating an ideal absolutism like france. o Most things happened at a county level. But, ppl at county level had some sort of
role at making the govt work
o There was also a theory of limited monarchy: the association: a group of nobles
who came together, during Elizabeth was threat and pope said whoever wanted
to resist her was able to, if Elizabeth was overthrown, we will take control of govt
in our own hand and not let any catholics take control. This means that ppl could
resist a monarch and in this case it was religion.
o England also had the issue of taxes. King could lower the taxes for ppl but only if
it is approved by the House Of Common in the Parliament. Tax was usally a gift
to the king.
o Powerful monarch but another monarch that actually di the work
o CHARLES I
o After his death, CHARLES II came about
o JAMES II
o WILLIAM III
- By 18 century, these two were center of empires.
- What is an empire?
o There is no higher power.
o Imperium: sovereignty: control over a certain control: king didn’t have direct
control over the place; he just had some sort of power over it.
o Building an empire, like a state, required consent.
o Land broken up into small parts (composite?)
o Empires were difficult to manage.
Storytime: Colony of New Hampshire: two men , one was governor, and
one who worked for him. At this time, there were only 4 towns, couple
thousand ppl. Didn’t produced anything, useless. Was part of MA but the
king hated MA because ppl didn’t listen to him. When an opportunity
came to break up from MA, they took it. King wanted revenues for army
and rode fixing. He wanted more power in central govt: wanted ppl to do
what he said. During this time, the governor was given this office to find
ways of increasing revenue. He went to the citizens asking for money, but they did not want to give him money. Didn’t believe he was legit. At some
point he realized that ppl were going to kill him. He ask his assistant to go
ask for revenue. The citizens were bullies to him. Nothing worked. The
governor asked for another job. ‘
• Why was it so hard for the governor to convince ppl and get them
to listen to him
• The lesson is that Kings had a special way of convincing people
and getting the ci