ENVIRONMENT & DISEASE
- Human’s homeostasis has been human’s conscious concern.
- Human’s manmade problem has also been a concern. Example’s would be CO2
emission (global warming).
- History of human thought of the environment.
- Climate change has been a recent modern phenomenon.
- History: Dam breakage in Canada caused trillions and trillions of water from the north to
the atlantic ocean. It changed the gulf stream and a flower, Dryas Octopala, which lived
in cold atmospheres, were found all over the north.
1. The Concept:
2. The Biological Old Regime: When the old regime depended on solar energy.
population: low on food production resulted in a low population. From 1300-1500,
population barely grew. Agriculture basically determined population. There were cities
but they were small.
agriculture: the amount of food they could produce was very low. Most communities
could produce very little or no surplus. They would usually consume everything. Horses
were valuable and a status. Farmers didn’t use horses because it was expensive and
horses eat a lot. Farmers then had a hard time getting access to manure for soil.it took 8
europeans for feed 10 people. 80% of people were farmers/peasants. Those who did
farming didn’t make a lot of money.
social structure: most people were peasants, then middle classes: clergy, church
powers, soldiers, then high class. This therefore showed social inequality.
3. Captialism?: 4. Energy:
6. The Black Death: Disease that struck Europe towards the end of the period.
- 1500 was referred to as the Dark Ages for Europe: When the Roman Empire fell to the
barbarians (reckless people; descendent of the Europeans.)
- They lost cultures of the Roman Empire
- The Christian church was the only way of unifying the European world.
- The Middle Ages therefore was a time of Christian corruption because they had so much
- A renaissance happened to reborn the European world.
- Observations of Europe:
- The limiting factor of nature in Europe was B.O.R that caused a time of slow economy.
(look at vocab)
- Compared to other parts of earth, Europe was a very marginal, fragmented, and chaotic
place. This was their biggest assets; might’ve helped them somehow.
- Although there was a slow economy, productivity was improving.
- The end of this period was a disaster from a certain disease: Bubonic Plague. If you get
it, it was pretty much the end back then. Oriental rat flea (originated from china) also
struck the population. 1/3 of the population died of the diseases. In some places, 80% of
the population died from the 4 year period.
1. Niccolo Machiavelli:
2. Giotto: Father of the Renaissance artist. Attempts to draw real people.
3. Fra’ Filippo Lippi: His art was groundbreaking because he represented a non-religious
focus to regular human beings. He was paid to paint people.
4. Donatello: Sculpted a statue (of the first) of David. 5. Leonardo da Vinci: Painter; born in 1452. Interest in science and anatomy. Was able to
dissect the human body for education.
7. Botticelli: Another painter. Drew classical paintings of people.
- The black plague was a long-term crisis.
- During this time, there was also a little ice age.
- Citizens did not understand why God would cause all these crisis to human beings.
They then just turn to physical protection.
- For post-plague survivors, most people experienced this as a positive thing:
o After 4 years of the plague, one of the first things that have happened is that
much land is abandoned.
o Population has dropped so there are less mouths to feed
o These abandoned lands will be implantable, grass will grow, and livestock/horses
will be raised.
o Because of this, protein, dairy, and meat will be plentiful. Peasants (80% pop. of
Europe) will improve, and some dramatically, financially.
- Aristocracy and the higher class will not be satisfied with peasants improving financially.
Their peasants who make wheat as product for the higher class was not making as
much wheat and that the price of wheat declined because of low population.
- Tax revenue to the higher class was dropping significantly because of the low
- Peasants who prosper changed in attire. They began to wear more fancy outfits (buckle
on shoes, real shoes, etc…)
- Because of such low population and improvements of peasants, more strict rules were
imposed on them.
- The peasants revolted but were crushed by the royal army.
- The Renaissance was a logical evolution of the Medieval World.
- The Renaissance was a time to which people were beginning to just understand their
place in the world. A rethinking of cultural, intellectual and social endeavors. - The medieval times was when people found of about the Earth’s shape, the creations of
- Art also changed (vocab).
- Giotto: Adoration of the Magi – put Haley’s comet in his painting because he was
fascinated by it.
- Fra’ Filippo Lippi (vocab)
- The human body was fascinating in the Medieval Age. Donatello’s statue of David was
one the first naked statues created.
- Botticelli (vocab)
- Leonardo da Vinci (vocab)
Eyes to China
1. Euro-Centrism-Exceptionalism: the world is transformed by Europeans partly from their
technological, economic, intellectual, and military.
2. Emperor Wen: Responsible for the Great Canal that connected interior of china. This
allowed cheap transport of heavy supplies (food).
3. Zheng Wen:
4. Zheng He: sailing a fleet to many important places economically. Brought back gifts to
the Chinese emperor.
5. St. Brendan and Hy-Brasil:
6. Marco Polo:
7. Venice and Genoa:
- (first vocab) this is the reason why Europeans sailed and found the other parts of the
world. Finding cotton, coffee, other such we called the New World. This would lead to
the industrial revolution.
- Robert Marks says that there isn’t anything exceptional about Europe; they were not
dominant. He says that much that are changing and happening is in China. He though says that it is the expansion of Europeans that we get cotton, coffee, and other industrial
- China had more wealth. Mostly from patty fields. The largest city was located in China.
- China alone had 25% of the world’s population when France was just 1/8 of what china
had in the 1400s.
- China was a unified govt.: one govt over all china.
- (emperor wen)
- (zheng he)
- 1400s the Chinese emperor had to continue building the Great Wall of China to keep out
the Mongolians. This is why the emperor shifted his military economy to inland building
of the Great Wall. (Would China have discovered America before Christopher
- China had a Silk Road and Spice Routes to Java.
- China was considered a one way trade. Everything from China came out to Europe.
Europe didn’t have anything China needed. China basically had everything. Europe had
timber but it was too bulky to ship.
- One of the most important trades was pepper. It came from Asia and Europeans can
only get pepper from Asia; so was porcelain boxes and Chinese silk.
- ^ all these were consumer deals. It was not essential for survival. But these things were
in high demand for Europeans. Why? Comsuming things were an exceptionally
important thing in the 1400s.
The Real Atlantic Worlds Notes 9/20/12
Disease in the America’s
- European advantages (cont.): Disease: most catastrophic plague scenario in history.
o The Columbus Exchange (search it up)
o Before the Columbus’s time, Europeans did not venture out to other regions.
o America’s were not familiar with European disease.
o Because of this Americans were homogeneous (pretty much similar immunity)
o Influenza, measles, and especially small pox killed many Americans/Indians.
o First encounter s of the disease was 1518 when Columbus met the Indians.
o 3-4 years after Columbus’s arrival, Tiquano (Indians land) population dropped to
zero because of the disease.
o Aztec Empire: sickness struck them even before the Spaniards came. Emperor
fell from the disease.
o Inca Empire: *coming of strangers from sea* the emperor who said that died from
small pox along with 200k other Incans. Stress in economy, etc. within a few
years, about 5 million Incans died from small pox.
o 1550’s disease spreads through the middle section of America killing millions of
o Squanto (indian): 1614, found Englishmen who took Indians as slaves. He was
one of the victims. He was sold as a slave in Spain. Although this would be the
end of these Indians, Squanto was lucky enough to be bought by priests to teach
him how to learn Spanish/English and be converted. He wanted to go back to his
home village (boston). He ended up being able to go on an expedition to New
Finland. He was able to flee to his village. What he saw was not how he had
seen it before. It was entirely empty. It had only been 5 years since he was taken
away. The reason for change is because of Hepatitis.
o Summary: where ever Spaniards went on the eastern side, Indians were affected
by their disease.
o * estimate of 112 million (what used to be 8.4mill) people survived in the
o * 94% Indians died from the disease.
o Invisible allies
- Wayne Qhapaq
- Tisquantum (Squanto)
Assessing the Evidence
- “The Numbers Game”
- Alfred Kroeber
- Henry Dobyns
- Hernando de Soto 9/25/12
The Atlantic Renaissance
What was the Renaissance?
- Dante Alighieri
- Leonardo da Vinci
- Humanism: a return to the source; goes hand in hand with renaissance.
- Johann Gutenberg: invented the printing press.
The Renaissance and Discovery
- Jose de Acosta (Natural and moral history of the Indies): proved that old beliefs were
wrong.an example would be aristotle’s theory of the ‘burning equator’
- Michel de Montaigne (“On Cannibals”): French humanist scholar.
- Jan Mostaert:
- Andre Thevet: Painted Michel de Montaige’s visual on cannibals.
- Jacques Lemoyne de Morgues:
- John White: English artist. Early depictions of how America really looks. Fairly civilized
paintings of towns.
- Theodore de Bry: white painter.
Notes: - How Europeans religious life had huge effects overseas
- Renaissance: rebirth of classical (traditional) learning.
- People who a taught classical learning used humanism.
- Humanist, from Greek and Hebrew scriptures, created the first vernacular bible.
- Most modern paintings are influenced by the renaissance.
- After Johann’s invention, information spread throughout the nation.
- Map making, increased navigation from the help of printing press. Johann can be
considered as a humanist.
- Vita active: to go and conquer the world (glory)
- (^jose) by this time, old beliefs were disregarded.
- Civility in painting was determined through their attire.
- (visual representations) basically showed how Europeans saw the world and how this
would affect things.
The Atlantic Reformation
The European Reformation
- Martin Luther: theologian. Had doubts about the Catholic Church and established
Lutheran churches. By then, there were Protestants and Catholics in Europe.
- 1Sola fide, Sola gratia, sola scriptura: getting into heaven not through good deed
but having faith in god. Given by god. All of gods truth is revealed in scriptures. These
three things were introduced by Luther.
- Antichrist: servant of devil who takes on the image of holiness. Luther introduced this
and essentially called the pope an antichrist.
- Magisterial Reformation
- Peasants’ Revolt (1525): peasants revolted against their landlords and used Luther’s
beliefs to defend themselves.
- Council of Trent (1545-63): j Catholic Militancy