At the beginning of the 19 century, Russia was a huge country with many natural resources but failed to
- They were ruled by an autocratic Czar,Alexander III
1905 – Russia-Japanese war is an embarrassing defeat for the Russians and leads to the 1905 revolutions
of Russian workers againstAlexander III
- The revolution did not succeed and the tsar still held power
- The next Czar was Nicholas II
- The Tsarina at the time was under the influence of the power of a mystic named Rasputin
As the Tsarina was running things under Rasputin, more strikes continued to break out.
- Russians were upset that the Czar was not listening to them but was listening to Rasputin
Elites decided to assassinate Rasputin and push the Czar out of power, and succeeded.
March 1917 – the revolution succeeds and the czar is pushed out of power.Atemporary government is
decided in St. Petersburg
- The provisional government is not effective and the Duma that helped to form it is divided
- Many workers councils are formed throughout Russia (Soviettes)
- The provisional government continues to fight in the world war but the Russians are sick of the
war and want out
Lenin and the Bolsheviks argues that dedicated revolutionaries are needed to push the revolution forward
- He thinks a radical revolution is necessary because Russia is stuck where it is and not moving
forward and modernizing
- The Bolsheviks argue for peace, land, and bread (propaganda)
o Soldiers were fed up with the war and the Russian officers, so peace was growing popular
o Land appealed to the peasantry who thought it was too expensive to buy their own land,
but who experienced a land hunger. They wanted to be able to be farmers that controlled
their own land.
o Bread appealed to those living in the cities because there was a food shortage.
October 1917 – the Bolsheviks succeed in overthrowing the provisional government and seize power.
- Lenin tries to enter into a separate peace with Germany without annexations or indemnities March 1918 – The government signs the treaty of ____, which ended Russian participation in the war and
caused them to lose a lot of territory to the Germans
The white Russians are the counter-revolutiona