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Lecture

8. The Industrial Revolution.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1031
Professor
Robert Savage
Semester
Spring

Description
The Industrial Revolution: Great Britain 2/3/14 • Why it develops in Great Britain th o Started because of the Agricultural Revolution in Europe in the 18   Century o Innovations  Improved breeding of livestock  Increased food production o This had many results  A market grew inside Great Britain that enabled manufactured  goods  Fueled population explosion that provided a cheap source of  surplus labor o 1750­population of 6.5 million  o 1850­population of 16.5 million o Why agricultural production took off   Turnip­used to feed animals   Seed drill­enabled farmers to lay out rational fields and better  production  Better crop rotation  Animals bred for larger market yield  Used manure for crops  Turnip was a primitive crop (like the potato) o Political and other advantages that Great Britain had  Parliamentary system had reduced social tension  Commercial classes in England got their opinion heard  French were engaged in revolution but England was very stable  England did not have war on their own territory  England was a colonial empire • Supported and protected by the Royal Navy • Helped enable British industry to expand • Political cartoons showed their power over seas o Had a central bank that allowed investors to borrow, loan, and trade  money • Central bank  o Critical for infrastructures o Enabled a stable currency to emerge.  • Natural resources o Appeared like the resources were unlimited o Coal o Iron o Ore • Transportation o Helped spread the Industrial Revolution o Railroads  o Linked North England with the ports o Water looms (later replaced by steam engines) o Steam engines allowed the pumping water out of mines o Mass produced textiles • Showed pictures of the first steal Bridge, the fourth bridge in Scotland • Britain becomes the “workshop of the world” • 1840 England was importing 366 million pounds of cotton from South America • Had machines that changed cotton into clothes • Britain has an innovative economy supported by the government • Significant development in transportation o England was the most modern nation in
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