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13. Africa, Asia and European Imperialism.docx

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HIST 1031
Robert Savage

Africa,Asia, and European Imperialism 2/19/14 • Would be dominated by European powers but also the United States • Great Britain o By 1848 the British had the largest colonial empire the world had ever seen o Established themselves early in India; “the Jewel of the Crown” o Then looked to China; wanted to dominate the lucrative Chinese markettea, spices, silk, etc. o Great Britain had the largest merchant marine fleet so they were easy to dominate o Chinese leaders did not like the Great Britain and instead wanted to tightly control trade with Western countries o Chinese viewed the Europeans as a vulgar people who didn’t have much to offer  Were appalled at how they viewed money  Wanted to make sure that European influence did not spread to China o Britain was the most significant of the world powers that traded with China o British merchants had dominated trade that existed between Europe and China o Most of the goods that the British had to offer were mass producedvery little interest shown by the Chinese o This was a one-way trade. British merchants purchased goods from the Chinese who did not buy any goods in return o Chinese government forbade the selling of opium, but British merchants ignored these laws and they smuggled it into China from the British colonies in India o British merchants prospered greatly from the sale of opiumsilver and gold began to flow back out of China and into the pockets of the British merchants o Opium was a critical part of the trade that developed between China and Britain o Manchu dynasty wanted to stop the import of opiumpleaded to the Queen for them to stop importing the drug because it was ruining so many people’s lives o Queen was only concerned with the profits it was making and was not too concerned about the well being of the Chinese o The British used small forces to defeat the Chinese and force open China o The efforts of the Manchu dynasty to refute the British were futileBritish had advanced technology and were able to defeat the Chinese rather easily o British ships were built specifically for the trade of opium o In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking established Hong Kong as a permanent British colony and ended the First Opium War o Between 1856 and 1860, a second war developed because European powers continued to feel resistance from the Manchu dynasty o The French had begun to trade with China as well o By the end of the Second Opium War, the Chinese had lost much of its empire and
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